Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm
Henry Chesbrough, Wim Vanhaverbeke and Joel West, editors
Oxford University Press, 2008 (paperback edition)

as of June 17, 2008


“Corporate Overview,” Open Source Development Labs, April 1, 2004, URL:

“Eclipse Forms Independent Organization,” press release, February 2, 2004, URL:

“Netscape Navigator,” Wikipedia, April 16, 2004, URL:, accessed May 22, 2004.

Aaker, David A. and George S. Day. 1986. “The Perils of High-growth Markets,” Strategic Management Journal, 7/5: 409-421.

ABA (2003). “Resources Related to Antitrust and Standard Setting,” American Bar Association Intellectual Property Committee.

Abernathy, William J., and Utterback, James M. (1978). “Patterns of industrial innovation.” Technology Review, 80: 40-47.

Abernathy, William J., and Clark, Kim B. (1985). “Innovation: Mapping the winds of creative destruction.” Research Policy, 14/1: 3- 22.

Abrahamson, Eric, 1996. “Managerial fashion,” Academy of Management Review, 22/1: 254-285.

Afuah, Allen (2004). Business models: A strategic management approach, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York.

Agrawal, Ajay, and Rebecca Henderson. 2002. “Putting patents in context: Exploring knowledge transfer from MIT.” Management Science 48/1: 44-60.

Ahuja, Gautam, 2000. “Collaboration networks, structural holes, and innovation: A longitudinal study.” Administrative Science Quarterly 45/3: 425-455.

Ahuja, Gautam & Lampert, Curba Morris. 2001. “Entrepreneurship in the Large Corporation: A Longitudinal Study of how Established Firms Create Breakthrough Inventions,” Strategic Management Journal 22/6-7: 521-543.

Akerlof, George A. (1970) “The market for lemons: quality uncertainty and the market mechanism,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84/3: 488-500.

Akerlof, George A., Kenneth J. Arrow, Timothy F. Bresnahan, James M. Buchanan, Ronald H. Coase, Linda R. Cohen, Milton Friedman, Jerry R. Green, Robert W. Hahn, Thomas W. Hazlett, C. Scott Hemphill, Robert E. Litan, Roger G. Noll, Richard Schmalensee, Steven Shavell, Hal R. Varian, and Richard J. Zeckhauser. (2002). “The Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998: An Economic Analysis,” Brief 02-1, AEI-Brookings Joint Center For Regulatory Studies.

Almeida, Paul, and Bruce Kogut, 1999. “Localization of knowledge and the mobility of engineers in regional networks.” Management Science 45/7: 905-917.

Almeida, Paul, Song, Jaeyong and Robert Grant, 2002, “Are firms superior to alliances and markets? An empirical test of cross-border knowledge building,” Organization Science, 13/2: 147-161.

Almeida, Paul, Gina Dokko and Lori Rosenkopf. 2003. “Startup size and the mechanisms of external learning: increasing opportunity and decreasing ability?” Research Policy 32/2: 301-315.

Amit, Rafael and Zott, Christoph (2001); “Value Creation in e-Business.” Strategic Management Journal, 22/6-7: 493-520.

Anton, J. J. and D. A. Yao (2004). “Little patents and big secrets: Managing intellectual property.” Rand Journal of Economics 35/1: 1-22.

Argyres, Nicholas (1995). “Technology Strategy, Governance Structure and Interdivisional Coordination.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 28/3: 337-358.

Argyres, Nicholas and Brian Silverman. (2004). “R&D, Organization Structure, and the Development of Corporate Technological Knowledge.” Strategic Management Review, 25/8-9: 929-958.

Arora, Ashish. (2002). “Licensing Tacit Knowledge: Intellectual Property Rights and the Market for Know-How.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 4/1: 41-59.

Arora, Ashish, Fosfuri, Andrea, and Gambardella, Alfonso, (2001a). Markets for Technology: The Economics of Innovation and Corporate Strategy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Arora, Ashish, Fosfuri, Andrea, and Gambardella, Alfonso, (2001b), “Markets for technology and their implications for corporate strategy,” Industrial and Corporate Change, 10/2, 419-451.

Arrow, Kenneth J. (1962). “Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention: Economics and Social Factors” In Richard R. Nelson (Ed.), The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 609-625.

Arthur, W. Brian, 1996. “Increasing Returns and the New World of Business,” Harvard Business Review, 74/4: 100-109.

Ashkenas, Ron, Ulrich, Dave, Jick, Todd and Kerr, Steve, 1995, The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of organizational structure, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.

Audretsch, David B. (1998), “Agglomeration and the location of innovation activity.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 14/2: 18-29.

Audretsch, David B, Lehmann, Eric E, Warning, Susanne. 2004. “University spillovers: Does the kind of science matter?” Industry and Innovation, 11/3: 193-206.

Axelrod, Robert, Will Mitchell, Robert E. Thomas, D. Scott Bennett, and Erhard Bruderer (1995). “Coalition-Formation in Standard-Setting Alliances.” Management Science 41/9: 1493-1508.

Baldini, Nicola, Rosa Grimaldi and Maurizio Sobrero. 2005. “Motivations and Incentives for Patenting within Universities: A Survey of Italian Inventors,” Academy of Management conference, August 9, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Bamford, James and David Ernst, 2002, “Managing an alliance portfolio,” McKinsey Quarterly 2002/3: 29-39.

Bamford, James, Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin and Robinson, Michael, 2003, Mastering alliance strategy: a comprehensive guide to design, management and organization, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

Baptista, Rui and Swann, Peter (1998) “Do firms in clusters innovate more?” Research Policy, 27/5: 525-540.

Barney, Jay B. (1986). “Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck and business strategy” Management Science, 32/10: 1231-1241.

Barney, Jay B. (1991). “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage.” Journal of Management, 17/1: 99-120.

Barney, Jay B.,1999, “How firm’s capabilities affect boundary decisions,” Sloan Management Review, 40/3:137-145.

Baskin, Elaine, Ken Krechmer, and Mostafa Hashem Sherif (1998). “The six dimensions of standards: Contribution towards a theory of standardization.” In Louis A Lefebvre, Robert M Mason, Tarek Khalil, eds., Management of Technology, Sustainable Development and Eco-Efficiency. Elsevier: 53.

Baum, Joel A.C., Tony Calabrese, and Brian S. Silverman. 2000. “Don’t go it alone: Alliance network composition and startups’ performance in Canadian biotechnology.” Strategic Management Journal 21/3: 267-294.

Beckman, Christine M. and Pamela R. Haunschild. (2002). “Network learning: The effects of partners” heterogeneity of experience on corporate acquisitions.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 47/1: 92-124

Bekkers, Rudi. 2001. Mobile telecommunications standards: GSM, UMTS, TETRA, and ERMES. Boston: Artech House.

Bekkers, Rudi, Geert Duysters and Bart Verspagen, (2002) “Intellectual property rights, strategic technology agreements and market structure: the case of GSM.” Research Policy, 31/7: 1141-1161.

Benjamin, Beth and Podolny, Joel 1999. “Status, quality, and social order in the California wine industry.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 44/3: 563-589.

Bercovitz, Janet and Feldman, Maryann (2003) “Technology Transfer and the Academic Department: Who Participates and Why?” DRUID Summer Conference, June 2003.

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, James, and Lassila, Ora, (2001), “The Semantic Web,” Scientific American 284/5: 34-43.

Besen; Stanley M. and Leo J. Raskind. (1991). “An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Intellectual Property,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5/1: 3-27.

Bessen, James, and Robert M. Hunt, 2004. “An Empirical Look at Software Patents,” Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Working Paper 03-17,

Betz, Frederick, 1993. Strategic Technology Management. New York: McGraw Hill.

Bettis, Richard, 1998, “Commentary in “redefining industry structure for the information age” by Jeffrey Sampler,” Strategic Management Journal, 19/4: 357-361.

Bjornson, Bruce 1998, “Capital market values of agricultural biotechnology firms: How high and why?” Agbioforum, 1/2: 69-73.

Blumenthal, David, Michael Gluck, Karen Seashore Louis, Michael A. Stoto, and David Wise. (1986). “University-Industry Research Relationships in Biotechnology: Implications for the University.” Science, 232/4756: 1361-1366.

Bossidy, Larry, Ram Charan, and Charles Burck, 2002. Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done, New York: Crown Books.

Boutellier, Roman, Oliver Gassmann and Maximilian von Zedtwitz (2000). Managing Global Innovation: Uncovering the Secrets of Future Competitiveness. Berlin: Springer.

Bower, Joseph, 1970. “Managing the Resource Allocation Process,” Division of Research, Harvard Business School

Bower, Joseph L. (1970). Managing the resource allocation process. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Bozeman, Barry. (2000). “Technology transfer and public policy: a review of research and theory,” Research Policy, 29/4-5: 627-655.

Brandenburger, Adam and Harbone Stuart, 1996, “Value-based business strategy,” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 5/1: 5-24.

Brandenburger, Adam M. and Nalebuff, Barry J. (1996) Co-opetition, New York: Doubleday.

Bresnahan, Timothy, and Shane Greenstein, 1996. “The Competitive Crash in Large Scale Commercial Computing.” in Ralph Landau, Timothy Taylor, and Gavin Wright (eds), The Mosaic of Economic Growth. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Bresnahan, Timothy F., Greenstein, Shane. 1999. “Technological competition and the structure of the computer industry,” Journal of Industrial Economics 47/1: 1-40.

Bresnahan, Timothy F., Malerba, Franco. 1999. “Industrial Dynamics and the Evolution of Firms’ and Nations’ Competitive Capabilities in the World Computer Industry.” In Sources of Industrial Leadership: Studies of Seven Industries, Mowery, David C., Nelson Richard R. (eds). Cambridge University Press: New York; 79-132.

Bresnahan,Tim and Pai-Ling Yin. 2004. “Standard Setting in Browsers: Technology and (Real World) Incomplete Information,” Standards and Public Policy conference, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, May 13 - 14.

Brim, S[cott] (2004) “Guidelines for Working Groups on Intellectual Property Issues.” Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 3699, URL:

Brinkley, Joel. 1997. Defining Vision: The Battle for The Future of Television. New York: Harcourt Brace

Brockmeier, Joe. (2003) “Is Open Source Apple’s Salvation?,” NewsFactor Network, April 21, URL:

Brody, Steve, (2001) “Interview: The Eclipse code donation,” IBM developerWorks, November 1, URL:

Brown, Shona L. and Kathleen M. Eisenhardt (1997). “The Art of Continuous Change: Linking Complexity Theory and Time-paced Evolution in Relentlessly Shifting Organizations.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 42/1: 1-34.

Brown, Shona and Eisenhardt, Kathleen (1998) Competing on the Edge: Strategy as Structured Chaos, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Brown, John Seeley, and Paul Duguid 2000. “Mysteries of the region: Knowledge dynamics in Silicon Valley.” In Chong-Moon Lee, William Miller, Marguerite Gong Hancock, and Henry Rowen (eds.) The Silicon Valley Edge. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 16-39.

Brusoni, Stefano, Prencipe Andrea and Keith Pavitt (2001), “Knowledge Specialisation, Organizational Coupling and the Boundaries of the Firm: Why Firms Know More Than They Make?” Administrative Science Quarterly, 46/4: 597-621.

Brynjolfsson, Erik and Glen Urban, (eds.), 2001, Strategies for e-Business Success, Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco.

Bulow, Jeremy and Paul Klemperer (1999). “The generalized war of attrition.” American Economic Review 89/1: 175-189.

Bunker Whittington, Kristin, Jason Owen-Smith. and Walter W. Powell. 2004. “Spillovers versus embeddedness: The contingent effects of propinquity and social structure. “Working Paper, Stanford University.

Burgelman, Robert A. (1983a). “A model of the interaction of strategic behavior, corporate context, and the concept of strategy.” Academy of Management Review, 8/1: 61-70.

Burgelman, Robert A. (1983b). “A Process Model of Internal Corporate Venturing in the Diversified Major Firm.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 28/2: 223-244.

Burgelman, Robert A. (1994). “Fading Memories: A process theory of strategic business exit in dynamic environments.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 39/1: 24-56.

Burke, Andrew E. (1996). “How effective are international copyright conventions in the music industry?” Journal of Cultural Economics, 20/1: 51-66.

Burt, Ronald, 1992, Structural holes: The social structure of competition, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Cargill, Carl F. (1989). Information Technology Standardization : Theory, Process, and Organizations. Bedford, MA, Digital Press.

Cargill, Carl F. (1997). Open Systems Standardization: A Business Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall PTR.

Cargill, Carl F. (2001). “Evolutionary Pressures in Standardization : Considerations on ANSI’s National Standards Strategy.” Testimony Before the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee, September 13, URL:

Cargill, Carl & Bolin, Sherrie (2004) “The Changing Nature of Standards Organizations: Walden Pond has been Drained.” Standards and Public Policy conference, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, May 13 - 14.

Carpenter, Janet and Leonard Gianessi, 1999, “Herbicide tolerant soybeans: Why growers are adopting roundup Ready varieties,” Agbioforum, 2/2: 65-72.

Castilla, Emilio J., Hokyu Hwang, Ellen Granovetter, and Mark Granovetter. 2000. “Social networks in Silicon Valley.” In Chong-Moon Lee, William Miller, Marguerite Gong Hancock, and Henry Rowen (eds.) The Silicon Valley Edge. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 218-247.

Caves, Ronald & Porter, Michael.E. (1977). “From entry barriers to mobility barriers: conjectural decisions and contrived deterrence to new competition.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 91/2: 241-261.

CBO, 1998, “How Increased Competition from Generic Drugs has Affected Prices and Returns in the Pharmaceutical Industry,” Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office.

Cesaroni, Fabrizio and Andrea Piccaluga. (2002). “Patenting Activity of European Universities. Relevant? Growing? Useful?” SPRU NPRnet Conference, Rethinking Science Policy: Analytical Framework for Evidence-Based Policy, 21-23 March 2002, SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton.

Chandler, Alfred. D., Jr. (1962). Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. (1977), The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press.

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. (1990), Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press.

Chandler, Alfred. D., Jr., (1991). “The Functions of the HQ Unit in the Multibusiness Firm.” Strategic Management Journal, 12 (Winter): 31-50.

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. 2001. Inventing the Electronic Century. The Epic Story of the Consumer Electronics and Computer Industries, New York, NY: Free Press.

Chesbrough, Henry, 2002a. “Making Sense of Corporate Venture Capital,” Harvard Business Review, 80/3: 90-99.

Chesbrough, Henry. 2002b. “Graceful Exits and Missed Opportunities: Xerox’s Management of its Technology Spin-off Organizations” Business History Review, 76/4: 803-838.

Chesbrough, Henry, (2003a). Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Boston: Harvard Business School Press

Chesbrough, Henry W. (2003b) “The Era of Open Innovation.” Sloan Management Review, 44/3: 35-41.

Chesbrough, Henry, (2003c). “Open Innovation: How Companies Actually Do It,” Harvard Business Review, 81/7: 12-14

Chesbrough, Henry, (2003d). “Open Platform Innovation: Creating Value from Internal and External Innovation,” Intel Technical Journal, 7/3: 5-9, URL:

Chesbrough, Henry (2003e) “Towards a Dynamics of Modularity: A Cyclical Model of Technical Advance,” In Prencipe, Andrea, Andrew Davies and Mike Hobday, eds. 2003. The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 174-198.

Chesbrough, Henry, (2004), “Managing Open Innovation: Chess and Poker,” Research & Technology Management, 47/1: 23-26.

Chesbrough, H. and K. Kusonoki (2001). “The Modularity Trap: Innovation, Technology Phase Shifts and the Resulting Limits of Virtual Organizations,” in I. Nonaka and D. Teece (Eds.): Managing Industrial Knowledge. London: Sage Press.

Chesbrough, Henry and Rosenbloom, Richard S. (2002) “The role of the business model in capturing value form innovation: evidence from Xerox corporation’s technology spin-off companies.” Industrial and Corporate Change, 11/3: 529-555.

Chesbrough, Henry W., and Teece, David J. (1996). “When Is Virtual Virtuous? Organizing for Innovation.” Harvard Business Review, 74/1: 65-73.

Chesbrough, Henry, Vanhaverbeke, Wim, and Joel West, eds., 2006. Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chiao, Benjamin, Josh Lerner, and Jean Tirole (2005). “The Rules of Standard Setting Organizations: An Empirical Analysis.” National Bureau of Economic Research, working paper 11156

Child, Simon, 2003. “Open Source and Intellectual Property.” MyITAdvisor. National Computing Center, March 22.

Christensen, Clayton M. 1997. The innovator’s dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Christensen, Clayton M., and Bower, Joseph L. (1996). “Customer power, strategic investment, and the failure of leading firms,” Strategic Management Journal, 17/3: 197-218.

Christensen, Clayton M. and Raynor Michael E. (2003), The innovator’s solution: creating and sustaining successful growth, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Christensen, Clayton M.; and Rosenbloom, Richard S. 1995. “Explaining the attacker’s advantage: technological paradigms, organizational dynamics, and the value network,” Research Policy 24/2: 233-257.

Christensen, Jens Frøslev (1995). “Asset profiles for technological innovation.” Research Policy, 24/5: 727-45.

Christensen, Jens Frøslev (1996). “Innovative Assets and Inter-Asset Specificity — A Resource-Based Approach to Innovation.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology 4/3: 193-209.

Christensen, Jens Frøslev (2000). “Building innovative assets and dynamic coherence in multi-technology companies.” In Nicolai J. Foss and Paul L. Robertson (Eds.) Resources, Technology and Strategy: Explorations in the resource-based perspective. London: Routledge.

Christensen, Jens Frøslev (2002). “Incongruities as a source of organizational renewal in corporate management of R&D.” Research Policy, 31/8-9: 1317-1332

Christensen, Jens Frøslev and Foss, Nicolai J. (1997). “Dynamic Corporate Coherence and Competence-Based Competition: Theoretical Foundations and Strategic Implications” in Aimé Heene and Ron Sanchez (Eds.) (1997). Competence-Based Strategic Management, Oxford: Elsevier.

Christensen, Jens Frøslev; Olesen, Michael Holm; Kjær, Jonas Sorth (2005). “The Industrial Dynamics of Open Innovation — Evidence from the transformation of consumer electronics.” Research Policy. 34/10: 1533-1549

Clark, Kim and Steven Wheelwright, 1992. Revolutionizing Product Development, (New York: Free Press)

Coase, Ronald, 1937, “The nature of the firm,” Economica, 4: 386-405.

Cockburn, Iain and Rebecca Henderson. (1998). “Absorptive Capacity, coauthoring behavior, and the organization of research in drug discovery” Journal of Industrial Economics, 46/2: 157-182.

Cockburn, Iain and Rebecca Henderson. (2000). “Publicly Funded Science and the Productivity of the Pharmaceutical Industry,” in Adam B. Jaffe, Josh Lerner, and Scott Stern (eds.), Innovation Policy and the Economy vol 1. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1-34.

Cohen, Stephen S.; Fields, Gary. 2000. “Social Capital and Capital Gains: An Examination of Social Capital in Silicon Valley.” in Kenney, Martin, editor, Understanding Silicon Valley: Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region, Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 190-217.

Cohen, Wesley M and David A. Levinthal. (1989). “Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D.” Economic Journal, 99/397: 569-596.

Cohen, Wesley M. & Levinthal, Daniel A. (1990) “Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 35/1: 128-152.

Cohen, Wesley M., Richard R. Nelson and John P. Walsh, (2000). “Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why US Manufacturing Firms Patent (Or Not).”National Bureau of Economic Research, working paper 7552.

Cohen, Wesley M., Richard R. Nelson and John P. Walsh, 2002. “Links and Impacts: The Influence of Public Research on Industrial R&D” Management Science 48/1: 1-23.

Coleman, James S. 1988. “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.” American Journal of Sociology 94: S95-S120.

Colyvas, Jeannette, Michael Crow, Annetine Gelijns, Roberto Mazzoleni Richard R.Nelson, Nathan Rosenberg, Bhaven N.Sampat (2002) “How do university inventions get into practice?” Management Science, 48/1: 61-72.

Conant, James. (2002) Tuxedo Park. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Coombs, Rod and Albert Richards (1993). “Strategic Control of technology in diversified companies with decentralized R&D.” Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 5: 385-396.

Collins, Steven and Hikoji Wakoh. (2000). “Universities and Technology Transfer in Japan: Recent Reforms in Historical Perspective.” Journal of Technology Transfer, 25, 213-222.

Cooke, Philip, 1992, “Regional innovation systems: competitive regulation in the new Europe,” Geoforum 23, 365-382.

Cooke, Philip, 1998, “Introduction: origins of the concept,” in Braczyk, Hans-Joachim, Cooke Philip and Martin Heidenreich (eds.) Regional Innovation Systems, London, UCL Press.

Cooke, Philip, 2004a, “Introduction: origins of the concept,” in Braczyk, Hans-Joachim, Cooke Philip and Martin Heidenreich (eds) Regional innovation systems, 2nd ed., London, UCL Press, 2-25.

Cooke Philip, 2004b, “Knowledge Capabilities, Open Innovation and Cluster Competitiveness,” Paper presented at The Competitiveness Institute Conference, Building Innovative Clusters for Competitive Advantage Ottawa, September 27-October 1, 2004.

Cooke, Philip, 2005, “Regional Knowledge Capabilities and Open Innovation: Regional Innovation Systems and Clusters in the Asymmetric Knowledge Economy,” In: Clusters, Networks & Innovation, Stefano Breschi & Franco Malerba (eds.), Oxford university Press, Oxford,

Cooper, Robert G., Edgett, Scott J., Kleinschemidt, Elko J., (2002).”Optimizing the Stage-Gate Process: What Best Practice Companies Do.” Research and Technology Management 45/6: 21-27.

Cusumano, Michael A. (2004). The Business of Software. New York: Free Press.

Cusumano, Michael A., Yiorgos Mylonadis, and Richard S. Rosenbloom. 1992. “Strategic maneuvering and mass-market dynamics: The triumph of VHS over Beta,” Business History Review 66/1: 51-94.

Cusumano, Michael A. and David B. Yoffie. 1998. Competing on Internet Time: Lessons from Netscape and Its Battle with Microsoft. New York: Free Press

Cowan, Robin, Paul A David, Dominique Foray. 2000 “The explicit economics of knowledge codification and tacitness,” Industrial and Corporate Change. 9/2: 211-253.

Cyert, Richard M and March, J. G., (1963). A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Dasgupta, Partha and Paul A. David. (1994). “Towards a new economics of science.” Research Policy , 23/5: 487-521

David, Paul A. (1998). “Common Agency Contracting and the Emergence of ‘Open Science’ Institutions.” American Economic Review, 88/2: 15-21.

David, Paul A. 2002, “The Economic Logic of ‘Open Science’ and the Balance between Private Property Rights and the Public Domain in Scientific Data and Information: A Primer,” Stanford Institution for Economic Policy Research, Discussion Paper No. 02-30, Stanford University, URL:

David, Paul A. 2005. “Can ‘Open Science’ be Protected from the Evolving Regime of IPR Protections?” Economics Working Paper Archive, working paper 0502010, Washington University in St. Louis, URL:

David, Paul A. and Shane Greenstein (1990). “The Economics of Compatibility Standards: An Introduction to Recent Research.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology 1/1: 3-42.

David, Paul A., David Mowery, and W. Edward Steinmueller. (1992). “Analysing the Economic Payoffs from Basic Research.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2/4: 73-90.

David, Paul A., Hall, Bronwyn H., and Toole, Andrew A. (2000) “Is public R&D a complement or substitute for private R&D? A review of the econometric evidence.” Research Policy, 29/4-5: 497-529.

Davis, Julie, and Suzanne Harrison, 2001. Edison in the Boardroom, New York: John Wiley.

Day, Diana (1994), “Raising Radicals: Different Processes for Championing Innovative Corporate Ventures.” Organization Science 5/2: 149-172.

Debackere, Koenraad and Reinhilde Veugelers. (2005) “The role of academic technology transfer organizations in improving industry science links.” Research Policy, 34/3: 321-342.

De Laat, Paul B. (1999). “Systemic innovation and the virtues of going virtual: The case of the digital video disc.” Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 11/2: 159-180.

Dedrick, Jason and Kenneth L. Kraemer, Asia’s Computer Challenge: Threat or Opportunity for the United States and the World? Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.

Dedrick, Jason and Joel West, 2004. “An exploratory study into Open Source platform adoption,” Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, p. 80265b.

Deng, Zhen, Baruch Lev, and Francis Narin. (1999). “Science and Technology as Predictors of Stock Performance.” Financial Analysts Journal 55/3: 20-32.

Dertouzos, Michael L., Richard K. Lester, and Robert M. Solow, 1989. Made in America: Regaining the Productivity Edge Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Dhebar, Anirudh, (1995). “Complementarity, compatibility, and product change: Breaking with the past?” Journal of Product Innovation Management 12/2: 136-152.

DiBona, Chris, Sam Ockman and Mark Stone, eds. 1999. Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, Sebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly

Dierickx, Ingemar & Cool, Karel (1989). “Asset Stock Accumulation and Sustainability of Competitive Advantage.” Management Science, 35/12: 1504-1511.

DiMasi Joseph A. 2001. “Risks in new drug development: approval success rates for investigational drugs,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 69/5: 297-307.

Dokko, Gina and Lori Rosenkopf (2003). “Job Mobility of Technical Professionals and Firm Centrality in Wireless Standards Committees.” Proceedings of the Academy of Management Conference, Seattle, pp. A1-A6.

Dougherty, Deborah, (1992). “Interpretive Barriers to Successful Product Innovation in Large Firms.” Organization Science 3/2: 179-202.

Dougherty, Deborah, and Heller, T., (1994). “The Illegitimacy of Successful Product Innovations in Established Firms.” Organization Science 5/2: 200-218.

Dougherty, Dougherty, D. (1995) “Managing your core incompetencies for corporate venturing,” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 19/3: 113-135.

Doz, Yves and Gary Hamel, 1998, Alliance Advantage, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Doz, Yves, Santos, José and Peter Williamson, 2001, From Global to Metanational: How Companies Win in the Knowledge Economy, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

DTI, 2003, 3rd Community Innovation Survey, London: Department of Trade and Industry.

Dushnitsky, Gary (2004) “Limitations to inter-organizational knowledge acquisition: The paradox of corporate venture capital,” Proceedings of the Academy of Management Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, pp. C1-C6.

Dushnitsky, Gary and Lenox, Michael J. (2005). “When do incumbents learn from entrepreneurial ventures? Corporate venture capital and investing firm innovation rates,” Research Policy, 34/5: 615-639.

Duysters, Geert and Vanhaverbeke, Wim (1996), “Strategic interactions in DRAM and RISC technology: A network approach,” Scandinavian Journal of Management, 12/4:, 437-461.

Dyer, Jeffrey H., 1996. “Does Governance Matter? Keiretsu Alliances and Asset Specificity as Sources of Japanese Competitive Advantage,” Organization Science 7/6: 649-666

Dyer, Jeffrey H., 1997, “Effective interfirm collaboration. How firms minimize transaction cost and maximize transaction value,” Strategic Management Journal, 18/7: 553-556.

Dyer, Jeffrey H. and Singh, Harbir. 1998. “The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage.” Academy of Management Review, 23/4: 660-679.

Dyer , Jeffrey and Kentaro Nobeoka, 2000, “Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: the Toyota case,” Strategic Management Journal, 21/3: 345-367.

Dyer, Jeffrey, Kale, Prashant and Singh Harbir 2004, “When to ally and when to acquire,” Harvard Business Review, 82/7-8: 109-115.

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. 1989. “Building Theories from Case Study Research,” Academy of Management Review 14/4: 532-550.

Eisenhardt, Kathleen and Claudia Schoonhoven, 1996, “Resource-based view of strategic alliance formation: strategic and social effects in entrepreneurial firms,” Organization Science, 7/2: 136-150.

Eisenhardt, Kathleen and Jeffrey Martin, 2000, “Dynamic capabilities: what are they?” Strategic Management Journal, 21/10-11: 1105-1121.

Enriquez, Juan and Ray Goldberg, 2000, “Transforming life, transforming business: the life science revolution,” Harvard Business Review 78/2: 67-78.

Erickson, Ingrid. 2005. “Network Dynamics and the Problem of Trust: A Structurationist Approach to Change in Interorganizational Collaboration.” Stanford University, Working Paper.

Ernst, Holger (2001). “Patent applications and subsequent changes of performance: evidence from time-series cross-section analyses on the firm level.” Research Policy 30/1: 143-157.

Ernst, Dieter (2003). “Digital Information Systems and Global Flagship Networks: How Mobile Is Knowledge in the Global Network Economy?” in: Christensen, Jens Frøslev and Maskell, Peter (Eds.), The Industrial Dynamics of the New Digital Economy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

European Commission. 1997. “Promoting innovation through patents: Green Paper on the Community patent and the patent system in Europe,” June, URL:

Fabrizio, Kira R. (2005). “Absorptive Capacity and Innovation: Evidence from Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Firms.” Working Paper, Emory University.

Fabrizio, Kira R. (2007). “University Patenting and the Pace of Industrial Innovation,” Industrial
and Corporate Change,
16/4: 505-534.

Fabrizio, Kira R. and David C. Mowery (2005). “Defense-Related R&D and the Growth of the Postwar Information Technology Industrial Complex in the United States,” Revue d’conomie industrielle, 112: 27-44.

Fabrizio, Kira R. and David C. Mowery. (2007). “The Federal Role in Financing Major Innovations: Information Technology During the Postwar Period,” in Naomi Lamoreaux and Kenneth Sokoloff (eds.), Financing Innovation in the United States, 1870 to Present, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 283-316.

Farrell, Joseph (1996). “Choosing the Rules for Formal Standardization,” working paper, U.C. Berkeley Department of Economics.

Farrell, Joseph and Carl Shapiro. 2004. “Intellectual Property, Competition, and Information Technology,” working paper CPC04-45, Competition Policy Center, University of California, Berkeley. URL:

Farrell, Joseph, Jay Pil Choi,, Aaron S. Edlin, Shane Greenstein, Bronwyn H. Hall and Garth Saloner. (2004). “Brief Amicus Curiae of Economics Professors and Scholars in the Matter of Rambus, Inc.,” U.S. Federal Trade Commission, Docket No. 9302.

Farrell, Joseph and Garth Saloner (1988). “Coordination through Committees and Markets.” Rand Journal of Economics 19/2: 235-252.

Farrell, Joseph and Carl Shapiro (1992). “Standard Setting in High-Definition Television.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics, 1-93.

Fast, Norman D., (1978). “New Venture Departments: Organizing for Innovation. “Industrial Marketing Management 7: 77-88.

Feldman, Maryann, 2003 “The Locational Dynamics of the US Biotech Industry: Knowledge Externalities and the Anchor Hypothesis,” Industry and Innovation, 10/3: 311-329.

Feyerabend, Paul K., 1981. Problems of Empiricism, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fine, Charles, 1998. Clockspeed: winning industry control in the age of temporary advantage, London: Little Brown and Company.

Fleming, Lee and David Waguespack (2005). “Penguins, Camels, and Other Birds of a Feather: Brokerage, Boundary Spanning, and Leadership in Open Innovation Communities.”Social Science Research Network,

Foray, Dominique (1994). “Users, standards and the economics of coalitions and committees.” Information Economics and Policy 6(3-4): 269-293.

Foss, Nicolai and Torben Pedersen, 2002, “Transferring Knowledge in MNCs: The Roles of Sources of Subsidiary Knowledge and Organizational Context,” Journal of International Management, 8/1: 49-67.

Franke, Nikolaus; von Hippel, Eric. 2003. “Satisfying Heterogeneous User Needs via Innovation Toolkits: The Case of Apache Security Software,” Research Policy, 32/7: 1199-1215.

Free Software Foundation. 1991. “GNU General Public License Version 2,”

Friedman, Thomas, 2005. The World is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Fruin, W. Mark, 2006. “Business Groups and Interfirm Networks,” In Geoff Jones and Jonathan Zeitland, eds., Oxford Handbook of Business History, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

FTC (2002), “Welcome and Overview of Hearings,” Federal Trade Commission,

FTC (2003). In the Matter of Rambus Incorporated. Federal Trade Commission, Docket No. 9302.

Funk, Jeffrey L., 2003. “Standards, dominant designs and preferential acquisition of complementary assets through slight information advantages.” Research Policy, 32/8: 1324-1341.

Gallini, Nancy T. 2002. “The Economics of Patents: Lessons from Recent U.S. Patent Reform,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16/2: 131-154.

Galbraith, Jay R., (1982). “Designing the Innovative Organization.” Organizational Dynamics 11/1: 5-25.

Gallagher, Scott. and Park, Seung Ho (2002) “Innovation and competition in standard-based industries: A Historical Analysis of the U.S. Home Video Game Market.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 49/1: 67-82.

Gallini, Nancy T., 2002 “The Economics of Patents: Lessons from Recent U.S. Patent Reform,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16/2: 131-154.

Galunic, D. Charles and Kathleen M. Eisenhardt (2001). “Architectural Innovation and Modular Corporate Forms.” Academy of Management Journal, 44/6: 1229-1249.

Gambardella, Alfonso. (1992). “Competitive advantages from in-house scientific research: The U.S. Pharmaceutical industry in the 1980s.” Research Policy, 21/5: 391-407.

Gambardella, Alfonso and Torrisi, Salvatore (1998). “Does technological convergence imply convergence in Markets? Evidence from the electronics industry.” Research Policy, 27/5: 445-463.

Gandal, Neil, Salant, David, and Waverman, Leonard (2003). “Standards in Wireless Telephone Networks.” Telecommunications Policy, 27/5-6: 325-332.

Gans, Joshua S., David H. Hsu and Scott Stern, 2001. “When does startup innovation spur the gale of Creative Destruction,” National Bureau of Economic Research, working paper 7851.

Gans, Joshua S. and Scott Stern (2003). “The product market and the market for ‘ideas’: commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs.” Research Policy 32/2: 333-350.

Garcia, Rosanna, and Calantone, Roger. (2002). “A critical look at technological innovation typology and innovativeness terminology: a literature review.” Journal of Product Innovation Management 19/2: 110-132.

Gargiulo, Martin, and Benassi, Mario (2000). “Trapped in your own net? Network cohesion, structural holes, and the adaptation of social capital.” Organization Science, 11/2: 183-196.

Garud, Ragu, Jain, Sanjay and Kumaraswamy, Arun. (2002). “Institutional Entrepreneurship in the Sponsorship of Common Technological Standards: The Case of Sun Microsystems and Java.” Academy of Management Journal, 45/1: 196-214.

Garud, Raghu, Arun Kumaraswamy and Richard N Langlois, editors. 2003. Managing in the modular age: architectures, networks, and organizations Oxford: Blackwell.

Gassmann, Oliver and von Zedtwitz, Max (2002) “Managing customer oriented research,” International Journal of Technology Management, 24/2: 165-193.

Gassmann, Oliver and von Zedtwitz, Max 2002. “Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: four different patterns of managing research and development,” Research Policy, 31/4: 569-588

Gawer, Annabelle & Michael A. Cusumano. (2002). Platform Leadership: How Intel, Microsoft, and Cisco Drive Industry Innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Gelijns, AC and SO Their. (2002). “Medical Innovation and Institutional Independence: Rethinking University-Industry Connections.” JAMA, 287(1), 72-77.

Gemunden, Hans Georg, Ritter, Thomas. and Heydebreck, Peter. (1996). Network configuration and innovation success: an empirical analysis in German high-tech industries. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13/5: 449-462.

Gerlach, Michael, 1992. Alliance Capitalism, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gerybadze, Alexander and Guido Reger (1999). “Globalization of R&D: recent changes in the management of innovation in transitional corporations.” Research Policy 28/2-3: 251-274.

Geuna, Aldo and Lionel Nesta. (2003). “University Patenting and its Effects on Academic Research: The Emerging European Evidence.”SPRU Electronic Working Paper No. 99.

Ghemawat, Pankaj, Collis, David J. Pisano, Gary P. and Rivkin, Jan W. , 1999, Strategy And The Business Landscape: Text And Cases. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Giarratana, Marco S. (2004). “The birth of a new industry: entry by start-ups and the drivers of firm growth: The case of encryption software.” Research Policy, 33/5: 707-806.

Gilbert, Richard J. Newbery, David M., and Reinganum, Jennifer F., (1984). “Uncertain Innovation and the Persistence of Monopoly.” American Economic Review 74/1: 238-246.

Gilbert, Clark G. (2002a). “Beyond Resource Allocation: Towards a Process Model of Response to Disruptive Change.” Harvard Business School Working Paper #03-018. Boston: Harvard Business School.

Gilbert, Clark G. (2002b). “Can Competing Frames Co-exist? The Paradox of Threatened Response.”Working Paper Paper #02-056. Boston: Harvard Business School.

Gilson, Ronald J. 1999. “The Legal Infrastructure of High Technology Industrial Districts: Silicon Valley, Route 128, And Covenants Not To Compete,” New York University Law Review, 74/3: 575-629.

Glaser, Barney and Anselm Strauss, 1967, The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies of Qualitative Research. London: Wiedenfeld and Nicholson.

Goerzen, Anthony and Paul W. Beamish (2005).” The Alliance Portfolio Effect on MNE Performance,” Strategic Management Journal, 26/4: 333-354.

Goldberg, Ray and John Gourville, 2002, Calgene, Inc., Harvard Business School Case No. 9-502-041, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Golder, Peter N; Tellis, Gerard J. 1993. “Pioneer advantage: Marketing logic or marketing legend?” Journal of Marketing Research, 30/2: 158-170.

Gomes, Lee. (2004) “Avalanche Project is Clearing the Path for Tech Cooperation.” Wall Street Journal, April 12, p. B1.

Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin, 1994, “Group versus Group: How Alliance Networks Compete,” Harvard Business Review, 72/4: 62-74.

Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin, 1996, The Alliance Revolution: The New Shape of Business Rivalry, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Gompers, Paul A., and Josh Lerner. 1999. The Venture Capital Cycle, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Gonsalves, Antone and Coffee, Peter. (1998) “Jikes! More Open Source Code,” PC Week, December 7, p. 6.

Goolsbee, Austan, 1998. “Does Government R&D Policy Mainly Benefit Scientists and Engineers?” American Economic Review, 88/2: 298-302

Gottfredson, Mark, Puryear, Rudy and Phillips, Stephen, 2005, “Strategic sourcing: from periphery to the core, Harvard Business Review,” 83/2: 132-139.

Graff, Gregory, Amir Heiman and David Zilberman. (2002). “University Research and Offices of Technology Transfer.” California Management Review, 45/1: 88-111.

Graham, Stuart J.H., 2004. “Continuation, Complementarity, and Capturing Value: Three Studies Exploring Firms’ Complementary Uses of Appropriability Mechanisms in Technological Innovation,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Haas School of Business, U.C. Berkeley.

Graham, Stuart J.H. and David C. Mowery, 2003. “Intellectual Property Protection in the U.S. Software Industry.” In Wesley M. Cohen and Stephen A. Merrill, eds., Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Graham, Stuart J.H., and David C. Mowery, 2004. “Submarines in Software? Continuations in U.S. Software Patenting in the 1980s and 1990s,” Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 13/5: 443-456.

Graham, Stuart J.H. and David C. Mowery, 2005. “Software Patents: Good News or Bad News?.” In Robert W. Hahn, ed., Intellectual Property Rights in Frontier Industries: Software and Biotechnology, Washington: AEI-Brookings Joint Center.

Graham, Stuart J.H., Bronwyn H. Hall, Dietmar Harhoff, and David C. Mowery, 2003. “Post-issue Patent ‘Quality Control:’ A Comparative Study of U.S. Patent Reexaminations and European Patent Oppositions.” In Wesley M. Cohen and Stephen A. Merrill, eds., Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Granovetter, Mark. 1985. “Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness.” American Journal of Sociology 91/3: 481-510.

Grand, Simon, von Krogh, Georg, Leonard, Dorothy, and Swap, Walter (2004). “Resource allocation beyond firm boundaries: A multi-level model for open source innovation.” Long Range Planning, 37/6: 591-610.

Granstrand, Ove (1982). Technology Management and Markets. London: Pinter.

Granstrand, Ove and Sören Sjölander (1990). “Managing innovation in multi-technology corporations.” Research Policy, 19/1: 35-60.

Granstrand, Ove, Pari Patel and Keith Pavitt (1997). “Multi-Technology Corporations: Why they have ‘distributed’ rather than ‘distinctive’ core competence.” California Management Review, 39/4: 8-25.

Grant, Robert M. (1991). “The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation.” California Management Review, 33/3: 114-135.

Grant, Robert and Charles Baden-Fuller, 2002, “The knowledge-based view of strategic alliance formation: knowledge accessing versus organizational learning,” in: Contractor, Farok and Peter Lorange (eds.), Cooperative strategies and alliances, Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Grant, Robert and Charles Baden-Fuller, 2004, “A knowledge accessing theory of strategic alliances,” Journal of Management Studies, 41/1: 61-84.

Griliches, Zvi, 1957, “Hybrid Corn: An Exploration in the Economics of Technological Change,” Econometrica, 25/4: 501-522.

Griliches, Zvi. (1986). “Productivity, R&D, and Basic Research at the Firm Level in the 1970s.” American Economic Review, 76/1: 141-154.

Grindley, Peter C. and David J. Teece (1997). “Managing intellectual capital: Licensing and cross-licensing in semiconductors and electronics.” California Management Review 39/2: 8-41.

Grove, Andrew S. (1996). Only the Paranoid Survive: How to Exploit the Crisis Points that Challenge Every Company and Career, New York: Doubleday.

Gulati, Ranjay. (1995a). “Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliances.” Academy of Management Journal, 38/1: 85-112.

Gulati, Ranjay, (1995b), “Social structure and alliance formation patterns: A longitudinal analysis,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 40: 619-652.

Gulati, Ranjay. 1998. “Alliances and networks.” Strategic Management Journal 19/4: 293-317.

Gulati, Ranjay (1999). “Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation.” Strategic Management Journal, 20/5: 397-420.

Gulati, Ranjay and James D. Westphal 1999. “Cooperative or Controlling? The Effects of CEO-Board Relations and the Content of Interlocks on the Formation of Joint Ventures,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 44/3: 473-506.

Gulati, Ranjay, Nitin Nohria, and Akbar Zaheer. 2000. “Strategic networks,” Strategic Management Journal 21/3: 203-215.

Guth, Robert A., and Don Clark, 2004. “Behind Secret Settlement Talks: New Power of Tech Customers,” Wall Street Journal, April 5, p. 1.

Hage, Jerald Theories of organizations. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980.

Hagedoorn, John and Geert Duysters, 2002, “External appropriation of innovative capabilities: the choice between strategic partnering and mergers and acquisitions,” Journal of Management Studies, 39/2: 167-188.

Hagedoorn, John and Cloodt, Myriam (2003), “Measuring innovative performance: is there an advantage in using multiple indicators?” Research Policy, 32/8: 1365-1379.

Hagel, John, III and Brown, John (2005). The only sustainable edge; Why business strategy depends on productive friction and dynamic specialization, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

Hall, Bronwyn H., Adam Jaffe, and Manuel Trajtenberg. (2000). “Market Value and Patent Citations: A First Look.”National Bureau of Economic Research, working paper 7741.

Hall, Bronwyn H., Albert N. Link, and John T. Scott. (2001). “Barriers Inhibiting Industry from Partnering with Universities: Evidence from the Advanced Technology Program.” Journal of Technology Transfer, 26/1-2: 87-98.

Hall, B. H. and R. H. Ziedonis (2001). “The patent paradox revisited: an empirical study of patenting in the US semiconductor industry, 1979-1995.” Rand Journal of Economics 32/1: 101-128.

Hambrick, Donald C.; Cho, Theresa Seung; Ming-Jer Chen. 1996. “The Influence of Top Management Team Heterogeneity on Firms’ Competitive Moves.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 41/4: 659-684.

Hamel, Gary. 1991. “Competition for Competence and Inter-Partner Learning Within International Strategic Alliances,” Strategic Management Journal, 12 (Summer): 83-103.

Hamel, Gary, 2000, Leading the revolution, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Hansen, Evan, “AOL lays off Netscape developers,” CNET, July 15, 2003, URL:

Hansen, Morten T., 1999. “The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Integrating Knowledge Across Subunits,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 44/1: 82-111.

Hansen, Morten T., 2002, “Knowledge Networks: Explaining Effective Knowledge Sharing in Multiunit Companies” Organization Science, 13/3: 232-248.

Hansen, Morten T. and Nitin Nohria, 2004. “How to build collaborative advantage,” Sloan Management Review, 46/1: 22-30

Hargadon, Andrew, and Sutton, Robert I. (1997). “Technology brokering and innovation in a product development firm.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 42/4: 716-749.

Hargadon, Andrew B., and Douglas, Yellowlees (2001). “When innovations meet institutions: Edison and the design of the electric light.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 46/3: 476-501.

Harris, Stanley G., Sutton, Robert I. 1986. “Functions of Parting Ceremonies in Dying Organizations,” Academy of Management Journal. 29/1: 5-30.

Hars, Alexander and Ou, Shaosong (2002) “Working for free? Motivations for participating in open-source projects.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6/3: 25-39.

Hayek, F.A., 1945. “The Use of Knowledge in Society,” American Economic Review, 35/4: 19-30.

Healy, Kieran and Alan Schussman 2003. “The Ecology of Open-Source Software Development.”Working paper, Department of Sociology, University of Arizona,

Hedlund, Gunnar (1994). “A Model of Knowledge Management and the N Form Corporation.” Strategic Management Journal, 15 (Summer): 73-90.

Heimeriks, Koen, 2005, “Managing portfolios of strategic alliances: The effect of alliance mechanisms on portfolio performance,” working paper, Copenhagen Business School.

Heller, Michael A. and Rebecca S. Eisenberg. (1998). “Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research.” Science, 280, 698-701.

Henderson, R. M., and Clark, K. B. (1990). “Architectural innovation: The reconfiguration of existing product technologies and the failure of established firms.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 35/1: 9-20.

Henderson, Rebecca and Iain Cockburn. (1994). “Measuring Competence? Exploring Firm Effects in Pharmaceutical Research.” Strategic Management Journal, 15 (Winter), 63-84.

Henderson Rebecca; Adam B. Jaffe; Manuel Trajtenberg. 1998. “Universities As A Source Of Commercial Technology: A Detailed Analysis Of University Patenting, 1965-1988,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 80/1: 119-127.

Henderson, Rebecca, Adam B. Jaffe, and Manuel Trajtenberg. (1998b). “University patenting amid changed incentives for commercialization,” in Navaretti, Dasgupta, Maler, and Siniscalco (eds.), Creation and Transfer of Knowledge: Institutions and Incentives, Berlin: Springer, pp. 88-114.

Hertel, Guido, Niedner, Sven and Herrmann, Stefanie (2003) “Motivation of software developers in open source projects: an Internet-based survey of contributors to the Linux kernel.” Research Policy, 32/7: 1159-1177.

Hill, Charles W. L. and Rothaermel, Frank T., (2003). “The performance of incumbent firms in the face of radical technological innovation.” Academy of Management Review 28/2: 257-274.

Hitt, Michael, Ireland, Duane, Camp, Michael and Donald Sexton, 2002, Strategic entrepreneurship, Oxford: Blackwell.

Hobday, Michael (1998). “Product complexity, innovation and industrial organization.” Research Policy, 26/6: 689-710.

Hobday, Michael (2000) “The project-based organisation: an ideal form for managing complex products and systems,” Research Policy, 27/7-8: 871-893.

Hoffmann, Werner and Wulf Schaper-Rinkel, 2001, “Acquire or ally? — A strategic framework for deciding between acquisitions and cooperation,” Management International Review, 41/2: 131-159.

Hoffmann, Werner, 2005, “How to manage a portfolio of alliances,” Long Range Planning, 38/2: 121-143.

Hwang Peter and Burgers, Willem P. 1997, “The many faces of multi-firm alliances: Lessons for managers,” California Management Review, 39/3: 101-117.

Iansiti, Marco. (1998). Technology Integration: Making Critical Choices in a Dynamic World. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Iansiti, Marco and Roy Levien. 2004a. The Keystone Advantage: What The New Dynamics of Business Ecosystems Mean for Strategy, Innovation, and Sustainability. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Iansiti, Marco and Levien, Roy (2004b), “Strategy as ecology,” Harvard Business Review, 82/3: 68-78.

Iversen, Eric J. (1999). “Standardization and Intellectual Property Rights: ETSI’s controversial search for new IPR procedures,” Proceedings of the 1st IEEE Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology, Aachen, Germany, September 15-17: 55-63.

Jacobides, Michael G. and Winter Sidney G. (2005), “The co-evolution of capabilities and transaction costs: explaining the institutional structure of production,” Strategic Management Journal, 26/5: 395-413.

Jacobs, Irwin (2005). “My Life on the Wireless Frontier,” videotaped public lecture, Computer History Museum, Mountain View, Calif., May 25, URL:

Jaffe, Adam B. 1996. “Trends and patterns in research and development expenditures in the United States,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93/23: 12658-12663.

Jaffe, Adam. (2000). “The U.S. patent system in transition: policy innovation and the innovation process.” Research Policy, 29/4-5: 531-557.

Jaffe, Adam B. and Lerner, Josh. (2004) Innovation and Its Discontents: How Our Broken Patent System is Endangering Innovation and Progress, and What to Do About It. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Jaffe, Adam, Manuel Trajtenberg, and Rebecca Henderson. 1993. “Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 108/3: 577-598.

Jaffe, Adam and Manuel Trajtenberg. (1996). “Flows of Knowledge From Universities and Federal Labs: Modeling the Flow of Patent Citations Over Time and Across Institutions and Geographic Boundaries.” Proceeding of the National Academy of Science, 93, 12671-12677.

Jaffe, Adam B.; Trajtenberg, Manuel; Fogarty, Michael S. 2000, “Knowledge Spillovers and Patent Citations: Evidence from a Survey of Inventors,” American Economic Review, 90/2: 215-18

Jelinek, Mariann and Schoonhoven, Claudia Bird, (1990). The Innovation Marathon. Oxford: Blackwell.

Johnson, Björn, Edward Lorenz , Bengt-Åke Lundvall, 2002. “Why all this fuss about codified and tacit knowledge?” Industrial and Corporate Change. 11/2: 245-262.

Judge, George G. R. Carter Hill, William E Griffiths, Helmut Lütkepohl, Tsoung-Chao Lee, 1985. The Theory and Practice of Econometrics, 2nd eds., New York: Wiley.

Kano, Sadahiko (2000). “Technical Innovations, Standardization and Regional Comparison - a Case Study in Mobile Communications.” Telecommunications Policy, 24/4: 305-321.

Kanter, Rosabeth, 1994, “Collaborative advantage: the art of alliances,” Harvard Business Review, 72/4: 96-108.

Kaplan, Jerry (1996) Startup: A Silicon Valley Adventure, Paperback ed, New York: Penguin.

Katila, Riitta (2002), “New product search over time: Past ideas in their prime?” Academy of Management Journal, 45/5: 995-1010.

Katz, Michael L. (1986). “An Analysis of Cooperative Research-and-Development.” Rand Journal of Economics, 17/4: 527-543.

Katz, Michael L. and Carl Shapiro. 1985. “Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility,” American Economic Review, 75/3: 424-440.

Katz R., and T. Allen, 1985. “Organizational Issues in the Introduction of New Technologies,” in The Management of Productivity and Technology in Manufacturing, P. Kleindorfer, editor, New York: Plenum Press

Katz Robert, and Thomas Allen, 1985. “Organizational Issues in the Introduction of New Technologies,” in The Management of Productivity and Technology in Manufacturing, Paul R. Kleindorfer, editor, New York: Plenum Press.

Keil, Thomas, 2002a, External Corporate Venturing: Strategic Renewal in Rapidly Changing Industries, Quorum Books.

Keil, Thomas (2002b). “De-facto standardization through alliances - lessons from Bluetooth.” Telecommunications Policy, 26/3-4: 205-213.

Kelley, Donna; Lois Peters, and Gina Colarelli O’Connor, (2005). “Leveraging the Organizational Network for Radical Innovation: Three Broker Models” working paper, Lally School of Management, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Kenney, Martin, editor, (2000a) Understanding Silicon Valley: Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Kenney, Martin. 2000b. “Introduction.” In Martin Kenney, ed., Understanding Silicon Valley. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1-12.

Kenney, Martin and Richard Florida. 2000. “Venture capital in Silicon Valley: Fueling new firm formation.” In Martin Kenney, ed., Understanding Silicon Valley. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 98-123.

Kenney, Martin and Donald Patton. 2005. “Entrepreneurial geographies: Support networks in three high-tech industries.” Economic Geography 81/2: 201-228.

Kenney, Martin and W. Richard Goe. (2003). “The role of social embeddedness in professional entrepreneurship: A comparison of electrical engineering and computer science at UC Berkeley and Stanford.” Research Policy, 33/3: 691-707.

Kerner, Sean Michael, 2005. “IBM: Open Source is more than just Linux,” InternetNews, April 20.

Kessler, Eric H., Bierly, Paul E., Gopalakrishnan, S Shanthi. (2000) “Internal vs. external learning in new product development: effects of speed, costs and competitive advantage.” R&D Management, 30/3: 213-224.

Khanna, Tarun, Ranjay Gulati and Nitin Nohria. 1998. “The dynamics of learning alliances: competition, cooperation, and relative scope,” Strategic Management Journal, 19/3: 193-210.

Kim, K., Park, J.- H., Prescot, J. (2003). “The global integration of business functions: a study of multinational businesses in integrated global industries.” Journal of International Business Studies, 34/4: 327-344.

Kirschbaum, Robert, 2005. “Open Innovation in Practice,” Research-Technology Management, 48/4: 24-28

Kodama, F. (1992). “Technology Fusion and the New R&D.” Harvard Business Review. 70/4: 70-78.

Kogut, Bruce and Udo Zander (1992). “Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology.” Organization Science, 3/3: 383-397.

Kogut, Bruce and Udo Zander. 1993. “Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation,” Journal of International Business Studies, 24/4: 625-646.

Kogut, Bruce., and Udo Zander. 1996. “What do firms do? Coordination, identity and learning.” Organization Science 7/5: 502-518.

Kogut, Bruce, and Metiu, Anca (2001). “Open-source software development and distributed innovation.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 17/2: 248-264.

Koka, B. R., and Prescott, J. E. (2002). “Strategic Alliances as social capital: A multidimensional view.” Strategic Management Journal, 23/9: 795-816.

Kortum, Samuel, and Josh Lerner, 1999. “What is Behind the Recent Surge in Patenting?” Research Policy 28/1: 1-22.

Kortum, Samuel and Josh Lerner. 2000. “Assessing the contribution of venture capital to innovation.” Rand Journal of Economics 31/4: 674-692.

Koza, Mitchell P., and Arie Y. Lewin. 1998. “The coevolution of strategic alliances.” Organization Science 9/3: 255-264.

Kozmetsky, George, (1993). “The growth and internationalization of creative and innovative management” in Generating Creativity and Innovation in Large Bureaucracies, Robert Lawrence Kuhn, ed. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 3-18.

Kraemer, Kenneth L. and Jason Dedrick. 1998. “Globalization and increasing returns: Implications for the U.S. computer industry,” Information Systems Research, 9/4: 303-322.

Krechmer, Ken. (2005). “Communications Standards and Patent Rights: Conflict or Coordination?” Economics of the Software and Internet Industries conference. Tououse, France, January.

Krechmer, Ken, “The Meaning of Open Standards,” International Journal of IT Standards & Standardisation Research. 4/1: 2006.

Krueger, Charles W. (1992). “Software reuse,” ACM Computing Surveys, 24/2: 132-183.

Krugman, Paul 1991. Geography and Trade. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Kuan, Jennifer W. 2001. “Open Source Software as Consumer Integration into Production.” SSRN working paper 259648.

Kuemmerle, Walter (1998). “Optimal scale for research and development in foreign environments: an investigation into size and performance of research and development laboratories abroad.” Research Policy, 27/2: 111-126.

Kuhn, Thomas, 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kunda, Gideon. 1992. Engineering culture: control and commitment in a high-tech corporation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Lagerstrom, Katarina and Maria Andersson, 2003, “Creating and sharing knowledge within a transnational team — the development of a global business system,” Journal of World Business, 38/2: 84-95.

Lakhani, Karim R. and von Hippel, Eric. (2003) “How open source software works: ‘free’ user-to-user assistance.” Research Policy, 32/6: 923-943.

Lammers, David, Ohr, Stephan (2003). “Startup bets on drop-in digital amps.” Electronic Engineering Times. (October 31).

Lamoreaux, Naomi R. and Kenneth L. Sokoloff. (1999). “Inventive Activity and the Market for Technology in the United States, 1840-1920.”National Bureau of Economic Research, working paper 7107.

Lamoreaux, Naomi R., Daniel M.G. Raff, and Peter Temin, 1999. Learning by doing in markets, firms, and countries, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lane, Nick (2003) “Risk of patent poker too high a gamble for Nokia,” 3G Mobile,, (January 22), 5/2: 1-2.

Lane, Peter J. and Michael Lubatkin (1998). “Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning.” Strategic Management Journal 19/8: 461-477.

Langlois, Richard N. (2003a). “The vanishing hand: The changing dynamics of industrial capitalism,” Industrial and Corporate Change. 12/2: 351-385.

Langlois, Richard N. (2003b). “Modularity in technology and organization,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 49/1: 19-37.

Langlois, Richard N. and Paul L. Robertson (1995). Firms, Markets, and Economic Change: A Dynamic Theory of Business Institutions. London: Routledge.

Laursen, Keld., and Ammon Salter (2004a). “Searching high and low: what types of firms use. Universities as a source of innovation?” Research Policy, 33/8: 1201-1215.

Laursen, Keld., & Salter, Ammon J 2004b. “Open for Innovation: The role of openness in explaining innovation performance among UK manufacturing firms.”Working Paper, Imperial College London

Laursen, Keld and Salter, Ammon (2005) “The paradox of openness of knowledge for innovation,” Paper presented for the All-academy Symposium “Open Innovation: Locating and incorporating external innovations” August 9, 2005, Academy of Management Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Lawler, Edward E. (1971) Pay and Organizational Effectiveness: A Psychological View, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Layne-Farrar, Anne, 2005. “Defining Software Patents: A Research Field Guide.” AEI-Brookings Joint Center Working Paper 05-14,

Lazerson, Mark H. (1995). A new Phoenix? Modern putting-out in the Modena knitwear industry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40/1: 34-59.

Leamon, Ann and Hardymon, G. Felda (2000). Intel 64 Fund. Harvard Business School Case 9-800-351. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Lecuyer, Christophe. 2000. “Fairchild Semiconductor and its influence.” In Chong-Moon Lee, William Miller, Marguerite Gong Hancock, and Henry Rowen (eds.) The Silicon Valley Edge. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 158-183

Lee, Gwendolyn K. and Robert E. Cole, 2003. “From a Firm-Based to a Community-Based Model of Knowledge Creation: The Case of the Linux Kernel Development.” Organization Science 14/6: 633-649.

Leifer, Richard, Christopher M. McDermott, Gina Colarelli O’Connor, Lois S. Peters, Mark P. Rice, Robert W. Veryzer, Mark Rice, (2000) Radical innovation: how mature companies can outsmart upstarts, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Lemley, Mark, 2001. “Rational Ignorance at the Patent Office,” UC Berkeley School of Law Public Law and Legal Theory working paper #46 (February)

Lemley, Mark (2002). “Intellectual Property Rights and Standard Setting Organizations.” California Law Review 90: 1889-1981.

Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. 1992. “Core capabilities and core rigidities: A paradox in managing new product development.” Strategic Management Journal, 13 (Summer): 111-125

Lerner, Josh, 2000. “150 Years of Patent Office Practice.” National Bureau of Economic Research, working paper 7477

Lerner, Josh and Jean Tirole 2002. “Some Simple Economics of Open Source,” Journal of Industrial Economics 50/2: 197-234.

Lerner, Josh and Jean Tirole (2004a). A Model of Forum Shopping with Special Reference to Standard Setting Organizations. National Bureau of Economic Research working paper 10664.

Lerner, Josh and Jean Tirole (2004b). “Efficient patent pools.” American Economic Review 94/3: 691-711.

Lerner, Josh and Jean Tirole (2005). “The scope of open source licensing.” Journal of Law Economics & Organization 21/1: 20-56.

Leslie, Stuart. 2000. “The Biggest ‘Angel’ of Them All: The Military and the Making of Silicon Valley,” In Martin Kenney, ed., Understanding Silicon Valley. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 48-67.

Lessig, Lawrence, 2004. Free culture: how big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity, New York: Penguin Press.

Levin, Richard C., Alvin Klevorick,, Richard R. Nelson, and Sidney G. Winter (1988). “Appropriating the Returns from Industrial R&D.” Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 862, Yale University.

Lieberman, Marvin B. and David B. Montgomery. 1988. “First-Mover Advantages,” Strategic Management Journal, 9 (Summer): 41-58.

Lieberman, Marvin B. and Montgomery, David B. (1998) “First mover (dis)advantages: retrospective and link with the resource-based view.” Strategic Management Journal, 19/12: 1111-1125.

Liebeskind, Julia Porter, Amalya Lumerman Oliver, Lynne Zucker, and Marilynn Brewer. (1996). “Social Networks, Learning, and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms.” Organizational Science, 7/4: 428-443.

Lilien, Gary L., Pamela D. Morrison, Kathleen Searls, Mary Sonnack, and Eric von Hippel. 2002. “Performance Assessment of the Lead User Idea-Generation Process for New Product Development.” Management Science 48/8: 1042-1059.

LizardTech. 2001. “LizardTech’s Statement on DjVu Open Source Licensing”

Lo, Allen M. (2002). “A Need for Intervention: Keeping Competition Alive in the Networking Industry in the Face of Increasing Patent Assertions Against Standards.” FTC/DOJ Hearings on Competition and Intellectual Property Law and Policy in the Knowledge-Based Economy, URL:

Lohr, Steve. 2005. “I.B.M. to Give Free Access to 500 Patents,” New York Times, January 11.

Loomis, Tamara, (2005) “Cell Break,” IP Law & Business, July, URL:

Lorenzoni, Gianni and Baden-Fuller, Charles (1995), “Creating a strategic center to manage a web of alliances,” Calfornia Management Review, 37/2: 146-163.

Louis, Karen Seashore, Lisa M. Jones, Melissa S. Anderson, David Blumenthal, Eric G. Campbell. (2001). “Entrepreneurship, Secrecy, and Productivity: A comparison of Clinical and Non-Clinical Life Sciences Faculty.” Journal of Technology Transfer, 26/3: 233-245.

Lundvall, Bengt-Åke, editor (1992) . National systems of innovation: towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Pinter

Lynch, Robert Porter, 1993, Business alliance guide, New York: Wiley.

Lynn, Gary S., Joseph G, Moroney, and Albert S. Paulson. 1996 “Marketing and Discontinuous Innovation: The Probe and Learn Process.” California Management Review, 38/3: 8-37.

Lyons, Daniel. (2005) “Open Source Smackdown.” (June 15).

Machlup, Fritz. 1983. “Semantic quirks in studies of information.” In The Study of Information, Machlup, Fritz and Una Mansfield (Eds). New York: John Wiley, pp. 641-671.

Madhok Anoop, 1997, “Cost, value and foreign market entry mode: the transaction and the firm,” Strategic Management Journal, 18/1: 39-62.

Madhok, Anoop and Steve Tallman, 1998, “Resources, Transactions and Rents: Managing value through interfirm collaborative relationships,” Organization Science, 9/3: 326-339.

Maidique, Modesto A. and Zirger, B. J., (1985). “The new product learning cycle.” Research Policy 14/6: 299-313.

Malone, Thomas W. and Robert J. Laubacher (1998). “The dawn of the e-lance economy.” Harvard Business Review, 76/5: 145-152.

Maltsbarger, Richard and Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas, 2000, “Direct and hidden costs in identity preserved supply chains,” Agbioforum, 3/4: 236-242.

Mansfield, Edwin (1968). Industrial research and technical innovation. New York: Norton.

Mansfield, Edwin. (1991). “Academic research and industrial innovation.” Research Policy, 20/1: 1-12.

Mansfield, Edwin. (1998). “Academic research and industrial innovation: An update of empirical findings.” Research Policy, 26/7-8: 773-776.

March, James G., 1991. “Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning,” Organization Science, 2/1: 71-87

Markides, Constantinos C. and Peter J. Williamson (1994). “Related diversification, core competences and corporate performance.” Strategic Management Journal, 15 (summer): 149-165.

Marshall, Alfred. 1920. Industry and Trade. London: Macmillan.

Maskell, Peter. 2001. Toward a knowledge-based theory of the geographical cluster. Industrial and Corporate Change 10/4: 921-943.

Mason, Ingrid, “IT giants accused of exploiting open source,” CNET, May 31, URL:

Maula, Markku, and Murray, Gordon (2001). “Corporate venture capital and the creation of US public companies: The impact of sources of venture capital on the performance of portfolio companies.” In Michael A. Hitt, Raphael Amit, Charles E. Lucier, and Robert D. Nixon (eds.), Creating Value: Winners in the New Business Environment. Oxford: Blackwell, 164-187.

Maula, Markku V. J., Salmenkaita, Jukka-Pekka, Keil, Thomas, and Väisänen, Kaarlo. (2003). “Dynamic complementarities of startups and incumbents in the creation of a systemic innovation,” Paper presented at the 23rd Annual International Conference of the Strategic Management Society, Baltimore, Maryland.

Mayer, David and Martin Kenney (2004). “Economic Action Does Not Take Place in a Vacuum: Understanding Cisco’s Acquisition and Development Strategy.” Industry and Innovation, 11/4: 299-325.

McDermott, Christopher M. and O’Connor, Gina Colarelli, (2002). “Managing Radical Innovation: An Overview of Emergent Strategy Issues.” Journal of Product Innovation Management. 19/6: 424-438.

McEvily, Bill and Zaheer, Abkhar (1999). “Bridging ties: A source of firm heterogeneity in competitive capabilities.” Strategic Management Journal, 20/12: 133-1156.

McKelvey, Maureen. 1991. “How do National Systems of Innovation Differ: A Critical Analysis of Porter, Freeman, Lundvall and Nelson,” In Rethinking Economics: Markets, Technology, and Economic Evolution, Hodgson, Geoffrey M. and Screpanti, Ernesto (eds). Aldershot, Hants, England: Edward Elgar, pp. 117-137.

McKenna, Regis. 2000. “Free advice: Consulting the Silicon Valley way.” In Chong-Moon Lee, William Miller, Marguerite Gong Hancock, and Henry Rowen (eds.) The Silicon Valley Edge. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 370-379.

McMillan, Steven G., Francis Narin, and David L. Deeds. (2000). “An analysis of the critical role of public science in innovation: the case of biotechnology.” Research Policy, 29/1: 1-8.

Meller, Paul (2004) “Europeans Rule Against Microsoft; Appeal Is Promised.” New York Times, March 25.

Merges, Robert P., 1996. “A Comparative Look at Intellectual Property Rights and the Software Industry.” In David C. Mowery, ed., The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure. New York: Oxford University Press.

Metcalfe, Stan (1995), “The Economic Foundations of Technology Policy: Equilibrium and Evolutionary Perspectives,” in Paul Stoneman (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Innovation and Technological Change, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Metcalfe, J. Stanley and Michael Gibbons (1989). “Technology, Variety and Organisation: A Systematic Perspective on the Competitive Process.” in Richard Rosenbloom (ed.), Research on Technological Innovation, Management and Policy, Vol. 4, Greenwich: JAI Press, 153-193.

Meyers, Patricia W. and Tucker, Francis Gaither, (1989). “Defining roles for logistics during routine and radical technological innovation.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 17/1: 73-82.

Miller, Roger, Hobday, Michael, Leroux-Demers, Theirry, and Olleros, Xaver. (1995). “Innovation in complex systems industries: The case of flight simulation.” Industrial and Corporate Change, 4/2: 363-400.

Miner, Anne S., Michael DeVaughn, Dale Eesley and Thekla Rua. (2001) “The magic beanstalk vision of university venture formation.” In Kaye Schoonhoven and Elaine Romanell, eds., The Entrepreneurship Dynamic, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 109-146.

Miotti, Luis and Frédérique Sachwald (2003) “Co-operative R&D: why and with whom?: An integrated framework of analysis” Research Policy, 32/8: 1481-1499.

Mock, David, 2005. The Qualcomm Equation. New York: AMACOM.

Mockus, Audris, Fielding, Roy T. and James D. Herbsleb. 2002. “Two case studies of open source software development: Apache and Mozilla.” ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, 11/3: 309-346.

Montobbio, Fabio. 1999. “National Innovation Systems: A Critical Survey.” ESSY working paper, Bocconi University, Milan.

Moore, Geoffrey A. 1991. Crossing The Chasm: Marketing and Selling Technology Products To Mainstream Customers, New York: HarperBusiness, 1991.

Moore, Gordon and Kevin Davis. 2004. “Learning the Silicon Valley way.” In Timonthy Bresnahan, and Alfonso Gambardella, eds., Building High-Tech Clusters: Silicon Valley and Beyond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 7-39.

Morone, Joseph G., (1993). Winning in High Tech Markets. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Morris, Charles R. and Charles H. Ferguson. 1993. “How Architecture Wins Technology Wars,” Harvard Business Review 71/2, pp. 86-96.

Moschella, David C. (1997). Waves of power: dynamics of global technology leadership, 1964-2010, New York: AMACOM.

Mowery, David C., 1983. “The Relationship Between Contractual and Intrafirm Forms of Industrial Research in American Manufacturing, 1990-1940,” Explorations in Economic History 20/4: 351-74

Mowery, David C., editor, The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Mowery, David C. and Richard R. Nelson, eds. 1999. Sources of Industrial Leadership: Studies of Seven Industries, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mowery, David C., Oxley, Joanne E., Silverman, Brian S. (1996) “Strategic alliances and interfirm knowledge transfer.” Strategic Management Journal, 17 (Winter), 77-91.

Mowery, David C., Oxley, Joanne E., Silverman, Brian S. (1998). “Technological overlap and interfirm cooperation: implications for the resource-based view of the firm,” Research Policy, 27/5: 507-523.

Mowery, David C., Richard R. Nelson, Bhaven N. Sampat, and Arvids A. Ziedonis. (2001). “The growth of patenting and licensing by U.S. universities: as assessment of the effect of the Bayh-Dole act of 1980.” Research Policy, 20/1: 99-119.

Mowery, David C . and Bhaven N Sampat. 2001. “University patents and patent policy debates in the USA, 1925-1980,” Industrial and Corporate Change 10/3: 781-814.

Mowery, David C . and Bhaven N Sampat. 2004. “Growth of U.S. University Patenting since the 1970s,” Paper presented at the Economic History Association, San Jose, Calif., September.

Mowery, David C., Bhaven N. Sampat, and Arvids A. Ziedonis. (2002). “Learning to patent: Institutional experience, learning, and t he characteristics of U.S. university patents after the Bayh-Dole act, 1981-1992.” Management Science, 48/1: 73-89.

Mowery, David C. and Arvids A. Ziedonis. (2001). “Numbers, quality, and entry: How has the Bayh-Dole act affected U.S. university patenting and licensing?” in Adam B. Jaffe, Josh Lerner, and Scott Stern (eds.), Innovation Policy and the Economy, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 187-220.

Mowery, David. C. and Timothy Simcoe (2002). “Is the Internet a US invention? - an economic and technological history of computer networking.” Research Policy 31/8-9: 1369-1387.

Mowery, David C., and Timothy Simcoe, 2002. “The Origins and Evolution of the Internet,” in Benn Steil, Richard R. Nelson and David G. Victor, eds., Technological Innovation and National Economic Performance Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1999. “Mozilla Public License Version 1.1,”

Murray, Fiona. 2002.” Innovation as co-evolution of scientific and technological networks: Exploring tissue engineering.” Research Policy 31/8-9: 1389-1403.

Nahapiet, Janine; Ghoshal, Sumantra. 1998. “Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage.” Academy of Management Review, 23/2: 242-266.

Narin, Francis. (1994). “Patent Bibliometrics.” Scientometrics, 30(1), 147-155.

Narin, Francis, Mitchell Rosen and Dominic Olivastro. (1989). “Patent Citation Analysis: New Validation Studies and Linkage Statistics.” In A.F.J. Van Raan (ed.), Science and Technology Indicators: Their use in science policy and their role in science studies, Leiden, Netherlands: DSWO Press.

Narin, Francis and Dominic Olivastro. (1991). “Status Report: Linkage between technology and science.” Research Policy, 21/3: 237-249.

Narin, Francis, Kimberly S. Hamilton, and Dominic Olivastro. (1997). “The increasing linkage between U.S. technology and public science.” Research Policy, 26/3: 317-330.

Nelson, Richard R. (1959). “The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research.” Journal of Political Economy 67/3: 297-306.

Nelson, Richard R. (1982). “The Role of Knowledge in R&D Efficiency.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 97/3: 453-470.

Nelson, Richard R., ed. 1993. National innovation systems: a comparative analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nelson, Richard R. and Winter, Sidney G. (1982) An Evolutionary Model of Economic Change. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Nelson, Richard R. (1998). “The Co-evolution of Technology, Industrial Structure, and Supporting Institutions.” In Giovanni Dosi, David J. Teece and Joseph Chytry (eds.): Technology, Organization and Competitiveness: Perspectives on Industrial and Corporate Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 319-315.

Nelson, Richard R. (2001). “Observations on the Post-Bayh-Dole rise of patenting at American universities.” Journal of Technology Transfer, 26/1-2: 13-19.

Nesta, Lionel and Ludovic Dibiaggio (2003). “Technology Strategy and Knowledge Dynamics: The Case of Biotech,” Industry and Innovation. 10/3: 329-347.

Nichols, Kenneth. 1998. Inventing software: the rise of “computer-related” patents. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books.

Noam, Eli (1992) Telecommunications in Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.

Noda, Tomo and Bower, Joseph L. (1996). “Strategy making as iterated processes of resource allocation.” Strategic Management Journal, 17 (Summer): 159-192.

Nohria, Nitin and Garcia-Pont Carlos, 1991, “Global Strategic Linkages and Industry Structure,” Strategic Management Journal, 12 (Summer): 105-124.

Nonaka, Ikujiro. 1994. “A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation.” Organization Science, 5/1: 14-37.

Nonaka, Ikujiro and Hirotaka Takeuchi, 1995, The Knowledge Creating Company. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nooteboom, Bart. 1999. Inter-Firm Alliances: Analysis and Design, London: Routledge.

Nooteboom, Bart, Hans Berger and Niels G. Noorderhaven. (1997). “Effects of Trust and Governance on Relational Risk,” Academy of Management Journal, 40/2: 308-338.

Normann, Richard, 2001, Reframing business: when the map changes the landscape, Chicester, UK: Wiley.

Normann, Richard and Rafael Ramirez, 1993, “From value chain to value network: designing interactive strategy,” Harvard Business Review, 71/4: 65-77.

North, Douglass C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.

O’Connor, Gina Colarelli (1998). “Market learning and radical innovation: a cross case comparison of eight radical innovation projects.” Journal of Product Innovation Management 15/2: 151-166.

O’Connor, Gina Colarelli, (2005). “A Systems Approach to Building a Radical innovation Dynamic Capability,” working paper, Lally School of Management, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

O’Connor, Gina Colarelli and Alan D. Ayers, (2005). “Building a Radical Innovation Competency: A Mid-Study Review,” Research-Technology Management 48/1: 23-31.

O’Connor, Gina Colarelli and Richard DeMartino. (2005). “Organizing for Radical Innovation: An exploratory study of the structural aspects of RI Management Systems in Large Established Firms,” working paper, Lally School of Management, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

O’Connor, Gina Colarelli and Mark P. Rice. (2005). “Business Models and Market Development: Key Oversights in the Radical Innovation Process,” working paper, Lally School of Management, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

O’Connor, Gina Colarelli, Mark P. Rice, Lois Peters and Robert W. Veryzer (2003), “Managing Interdisciplinary, Longitudinal Research on Radical Innovation: Methods for the Study of Complex Phenomena,” Organization Science 14/4: 1-21.

O’Mahony, Siobhán. (2003) “Guarding the commons: how community managed software projects protect their work.” Research Policy, 32/7: 1179-1198.

O’Mahony, Siobhán and Joel West (2005) “The Participation Architecture of Online Production Communities.” working paper, Harvard Business School.

Ouchi, William G. and Michele Kremen Bolton (1988) “The Logic of Joint Research and Development” California Management Review 30/3: 9-34.

Owen-Smith, Jason and Walter Powell, 2004, Knowledge networks as channels and conduits: the effects spillovers in the Boston biotechnology community, Organization Sciences, 15, 5-21.

Owen-Smith, Jason, and Walter W. Powell. 2006. “Accounting for emergence and novelty in Boston and Bay Area biotechnology.” In Pontus Braunerhjelm and Maryann Feldman, eds., Cluster Genesis: Technology-Based Industrial Development, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ozcan, Pinar and Kathleen Eisenhardt, 2005, “Start-ups in an emerging market: building a strong alliance portfolio from a low-power position.” Paper presented at the DRUID Summer Conference, Copenhagen, June 27-29.

Parise, Salvatore and Amy Casher, 2003, “Alliance portfolios: designing and managing your network of business-partner relationships,” Academy of Management Executive, 17/4: 25-39.

Parolini, Cinzia, 1999, The value net: A tool for competitive strategy, Chichester: Wiley.

Patel, Pari and Pavitt, K. (1997). “The technological competencies of the world’s largest firms: complex and path-dependent, but not much variety.” Research Policy, 26/2: 141-156.

Pavitt, Keith (1984): “Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory.” Research Policy, 13/6: 343-373.

Pavitt, Keith (1998) “Technologies, products and organization in the innovating firm: what Adam Smith tells us and Joseph Schumpeter doesn’t.” Industrial and Corporate Change, 7/3: 433-51.

Pavitt, Keith. 2000. “Why European Union funding of academic research should be increased: a radical proposal,” Science and Public Policy, 27/6: 455-460.

Pavitt, Keith, (2003). “What are advances in knowledge doing to the large industrial firm in the ‘New Economy’?” In: Jens Frøslev /3Christensen and Peter Maskell (eds), The Industrial Dynamics of the New Digital Economy; Cheltenham: Edward Elgar: 103-120.

Pavitt, K[eith], Robson, M[ichael], Townsend, J[oe] (1989). “Technological Accumulation, Diversification and Organisation in UK Companies, 1945-1983.” Management Science 35/1: 81-99.

Pelled, Lisa Hope, Eisenhardt, K.athleen, and Xin, Katherine. (1999). “Exploring the black box: an analysis of work group diversity, conflict, and performance.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 44/1: 1-28.

Peteraf, Margaret A. (1993). “The cornerstone of competitive advantage: a resource-based view.” Strategic Management Journal, 14/3: 179-191.

Pfeffer, Jeffrey and Salancik, Gerald R., 1978, The external control of organization: A resource dependence perspective. New York: Harper and Row.

Piore, Michael J., and Charles F. Sabel. 1984. The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books.

Pisano, Gary P. 1990, “The R&D boundaries of the firm: An empirical analysis,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 35/1: 153-176.

Pisano, Gary P. 1991, “The governance of innovation: Vertical integration and collaborative arrangements in the biotechnology industry,” Research Policy, 20/3: 237-249.

Podolny, Joel and Paige, Karen. 1998. “Network forms of organizations.” Annual Review of Sociology 24: 57-76.

Polanyi, Michael 1967. The Tacit Dimension. London: Routledge.

Porter, Kelley. 2004. “You can’t leave your past behind: the influence of founders’ ” career histories on their firms.” unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Department of Management Science and Engineering.

Porter, Kelley, Kjersten Bunker Whittington, and Walter W. Powell. 2006. “The institutional embeddedness of high-tech regions: Relational foundations of the Boston biotechnology community,” In Stefano Breschi and Franco Malerba, eds., Clusters, Networks, and Innovation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Porter, Michael E. (1980), Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, New York: The Free Press,

Porter, Michael E., 1985, Competitive advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance, The Free Press, New York.

Porter, Michael E. (1985), Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance, New York: The Free Press,

Porter; M. E. (1987). “From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy.” Harvard Business Review,. 65/3: 43-59.

Porter, Michael E. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press,.

Porter, Michael E., (1991). “Towards a dynamic theory of strategy.” Strategic Management Journal, 12 (Winter): 95-117.

Porter, Michael, 1996, “What is strategy?,” Harvard Business Review, 74/6:61-78.

Porter, Michael E. 1998. “Clusters and the new economics of competition.” Harvard Business Review 76/6: 77-90.

Porter, Michael E. and Orjan Solvell. 2002. “’ Harvard Business School case study 9-702-427. 23p.

Powell, Walter W. (1990). “Neither Market Nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization.” In Barry M. Staw and Larry L. Cummings, eds., Research in Organizational Behavior 12. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Powell, Walter W. 2001. “Patterns in Western enterprise.” In The Twenty-First Century Firm, edited by Paul DiMaggio. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Powell, Walter W., Kenneth W. Koput, and Laurel Smith-Doerr. 1996. “Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology.” Administrative Science Quarterly 41/1: 116-145.

Powell, Walter W., Kenneth W. Koput, Laurel Smith-Doerr, and Jason Owen-Smith. 1999. “Network position and firm performance: Organizational returns to collaboration in the biotechnology industry.” Research in the Sociology of Organizations 16: 129-159.

Powell, Walter W. and Laurel Smith-Doerr. 2005. “Networks and Economic Life,” in Handbook of Economic Sociology, edited by Neil Smelser and Richard Swedberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp.368-402.

Prahalad, C. K.; Bettis, Richard A., 1986. “The Dominant Logic: A New Linkage Between Diversity and Performance” Strategic Management Journal, 7/6: 485-511

Prahalad, C. K. and Hamel, Gary (1990): “The Core Competence of the Corporation.” Harvard Business Review, 68/3: 79-91.

Prencipe, Andrea (1997). “Technological competencies and product’s evolutionary dynamics: A case study from the aero-engine industry.” Research Policy, 25: 1261-76.

Prencipe, Andrea, (2000). “Breadth and Depth of Technological Capabilities in Complex Product Systems: The Case of the Aircraft Engine Control System.” Research Policy, 29/7-8: 895-911.

Prencipe, Andrea, Andrew Davies and Mike Hobday, eds. 2003. The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pugh, Emerson, 1995. Building IBM, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Quinn, James Brian, (1985). “Managing Innovation: Controlled Chaos.” Harvard Business Review 63/3 73-84.

Ramirez, Rafael, 1999, “Value co-production: Intellectual origins and implications for practice and research, “Strategic Management Journal, 20, pp. 49-65.

Ramirez, Rafael and Johan Wallin, 2000, Prime movers, Chichester: Wiley.

Rappert, Brian, Andrew Webster, and David Charles. (1999). “Making sense of diversity and reluctance: academic-industrial relations and intellectual property.” Research Policy, 28/8: 873-890.

Reuer, Jeffrey and Ragozzino, Roberto (2006), “Agency Hazards and Alliance Portfolios,” Strategic Management Journal, 27 (1): 27-43.

Rice, Mark P.; Leifer, Richard and O’Connor, Gina Colarelli (2002). “Commercializing discontinuous innovations: bridging the gap from discontinuous innovation project to operations.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 49/4: 330-340.

Rindova, Violina & Kotha, Suresh 2001. “Continuous morphing: Competing through dynamic capabilities, form, and function,” Academy of Management Journal, 44/6: 1263-1280.

Ring, Peter and Andrew van de Ven, 1992, “Structuring cooperative relationships between organizations,” Strategic Management Journal, 13/7: 483-498.

Rivette, Kevin and David Kline, 2000. Rembrandts in the Attic: Unlocking the Hidden Value of Patents, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Roberts, Edward B., (1977). “Generating effective corporate innovation.” Technology Review 80/1: 27-33.

Roberts, Edward and Wenyun Kathy Liu, 2001, “Ally or Acquire? How Technology Leaders Decide,” Sloan Management Review, 43/1: 26-34.

Rodrik, Dani. 2000. “How Far Will International Economic Integration Go?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14/1: 177-186.

Rodman & Renshaw (2003). “Tripath Technology, Media Technology, Market Outperform/Speculative Risk,” analyst report, Rodman & Renshaw LLC, December 30.

Romer, Paul M. 1987. “Growth based on increasing returns due to specialization.” American Economic Review 77/2: 56-62.

Rosen, Lawrence (2004). Open Source Licensing: Software Freedom and Intellectual Property Law, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR.

Rosenberg, Nathan (1982). Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenberg, Nathan. (1990). “Why do firms do basic research (with their own money)?’ Research Policy 19/2: 165-174.

Rosenberg, Nathan, 1994. Exploring the Black Box: Technology, Economics, and History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenberg, Nathan. 2000. “America’s university-industry interfaces, 1945-2000.” Working Paper, Department of Economics, Stanford University

Rosenberg, Nathan and Steinmueller, W. Edward (1988) “Why are Americans such poor imitators?” American Economic Review, 78/2: 229-235.

Rosenbloom, Richard and Cusumano, Michael A., (1987). “Technological pioneering and competitive advantage: The birth of the VCR industry.” California Management Review 29/4: 51-76.

Rosenbloom, Richard, and Spencer, William, 1996. Engines of Innovation: Industrial Research at the End of an Era, Boston: Harvard Business School Press:

Rosenkopf, Lori and Almeida, Paul (2003), “Overcoming Local Search Through Alliances and Mobility,” Management Science, 49/6: 751-766

Rotemberg, Julio J., and Garth Saloner. 1990. “Competition and human capital accumulation: A theory of interregional specialization and trade.” National Bureau of Economic Research working paper W3228.

Rothaermel, Frank T., and David L. Deeds. 2004. “Exploration and exploitation alliances in biotechnology: A system of new product development.” Strategic Management Journal 25/3: 201-222.

Rothwell, Roy (1994). “Towards the fifth-generation Innovation Process.” International Marketing Review, 11/1: 7-31.

Rothwell, R[oy]; Freeman, C[hristopher]; Horsley, A., Jervis, V.T.P., Robertson, A. B. and Townsend, J[oe] (1974). “SAPPHO Updated: Project SAPPHO Phase II.” Research Policy, 3/3: 258-91.

Rowley, Tim, Behrens, Dean and David Krackhardt, 2000, “Redundant governance structures: An analysis of structural and relational embeddedness in the steel and semiconductor industries,” Strategic Management Journal, 21/3: 369-386.

Rysman, Marc and Tim Simcoe (2005). “Patents and the Performance of Voluntary Standard Setting Organizations.” Rotman Working Papers, University of Toronto.

Sakakibara, Mariko. (1997). “Heterogeneity of firm capabilities and cooperative research and development: An empirical examination of motives.” Strategic Management Journal, 18 (Summer): 143-164.

Sakakibara, Mariko (2001) “Cooperative research and development: who participates and in which industries do projects take place?” Research Policy, 30/7: 993-1018.

Sakkab, Nabil, (2002). “Connect & Develop Complements Research & Develop at P&G,” Research-Technology Management, 45/2: 38-45.

Salz, Peggy Anne (2004) “Pay by the Rules.” Mobile Communications International. April, p.109.

Sampat, Bhaven N., David C. Mowery, and Arvids, A. Ziedonis. (2003). “Changes in university patent quality after the Bayh-Dole act: a re-examination.” International Journal of Industrial Organization, 21/9: 1371-1390.

Samuelson, Pamela, 1990. “Benson Revisited: The Case Against Patent Protection for Algorithms and Other Computer Program-Related Inventions.” Emory Law Journal, 39: 1025-1122.

Sanchez, Ron and Mahoney, Joseph T. (1996) “Modularity, Flexibility and Knowledge Management in Organizational Design. “Strategic Management Journal. 17 (Winter): 63-76.

Sanchez, Ron (2004). Creating modular platforms for strategic flexibility, Design Management Review, 15/1: 58-67.

Sarkar, Mitrabarun, Aulakh Preet and Anoop Madhok, 2004, “A process view of alliance capability: generating value in alliance portfolios,” Social Science Research Network, URL:

Saxenian, AnnaLee. 1994. Regional advantage: culture and competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Saxenian, Annalee. 1996. “Inside-out: Regional networks and industrial adaptation in Silicon Valley and Route 128.” Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research 2/2: 41-60.

Schildt, Henri A., Maula, Markku V.J. and Keil, Thomas (2005); “Explorative and exploitative learning from external corporate ventures,” Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 29/4: 493-515.

Schnaars, Steven P., (1994) Managing imitation strategies: how later entrants seize markets from pioneers, New York: Free Press.

Schon, Donald A., (1967). Technology and Change. New York: Delacorte.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1934), The Theory of Economic Development, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1942) Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.

Schumpeter, Joseph A., (1950). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, 3rd Ed. New York: Harper & Row.

Searls, Doc (2003). “Surprise: Apple’s New Browser Is a Sister to Konqueror,”, January 11, URL:

Shah, Sonali (2004.) “Understanding the nature of participation and coordination in open and gated source software development communities.” Proceedings of the Academy of Management Conference, New Orleans, August 9-11, B1-6.

Shan, Wei-jan, Gordon Walker, and Bruce Kogut. (1994). “Interfirm cooperation and startup innovation in the biotechnology industry.” Strategic Management Journal 15/5: 387-394.

Shane, Scott. (2004). “Encouraging university entrepreneurship? The effect of the Bayh-Dole Act on university patenting in the United States.” Journal of Business Venturing, 19/1: 127-151.

Shapiro, Carl and Hal R. Varian. (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Sheremata, Willow A. (2004). “Competing through innovation in network markets: strategies for challengers.” Academy of Management Review, 29/3: 359-377.

Shimoda, Sano, 1998, “Agricultural biotechnology — Master of the universe?” Agbioforum, 1/2: 62-68.

Siegel, Donald S., David Waldman and Albert Link. (2003). “Assessing the Impact of Organizational Practices on the Productivity of University Technology Transfer Offices: An Exploratory Study.” Research Policy, 32/1: 27-48.

Siegel, Donald S., David A. Waldman, Leanne E. Atwater, and Albert N. Link. (2003). “Commercial knowledge transfers from universities to firms: improving the effectiveness of university-industry collaboration.” Journal of High Technology Management Research, 14/1: 111-133.

Simard, Caroline.2004 “From weapons to cell-phones: Knowledge networks in the creation of San Diego’s Wireless Valley.” Unpublished dissertation, Stanford University, Department of Communication.

Simcoe, Timothy (2005). “Committees and the Creation of Technical Standards,” unpublished working paper, University of Toronto.

Simcoe, Timothy. 2006. “Delays and de Jure Standards: What Caused the Slowdown in Internet Standards Development?” in Shane Greenstein and Victor Stango, eds., Standards and Public Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Slaton, Joyce. (1999), “A Mickey Mouse Copyright Law?’, Jan. 13, URL:,1283,17327,00.html

Slywotsky, Adrian J., Morrison, David J. and Andelman, Bob, 2001, The Profit Zone: How strategic business design will lead you to tomorrow’s profits New York: Times Books/Random House.

Smith, Douglas K. and Alexander, Robert C. (1988) Fumbling the Future. New York: William Morrow.

Smith-Doerr, Laurel and Powell, Walter W. (2003). “Networks and Economic Life.” In Neil J. Smelsen and Richard Swedberg, eds, The Handbook of Economic Sociology, 2nd Ed., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 379-402.

Softletter, 2001. “The 2001 Softletter 100.” Softletter Trends & Strategies in Software Publishing, 3, pp. 1-8.

Software & Information Industry Alliance, 2005. “Packaged Software Industry Revenue and Growth.” URL:

Sorenson, Olav, and Pino G. Audia. 2000. “The social structure of entrepreneurial activity: Geographic concentration of footwear production in the United States, 1940-1989.” American Journal of Sociology 106/2: 324-362

Southwick, Karen. (2004). “Big Blue’s Mr. Web services,” CNET, March 17, URL:

Spence, A. Michael (1973) “Job Market Signaling.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87/3: 355-374.

Spender, J.C. 1996. “Making knowledge the basis of a dynamic theory of the firm,” Strategic Management Journal, 17 (Winter): 45-62.

Stabell, Charles and Øystein Fjeldstad, 1998, “Configuring value for competitive advantage: on chains, shops, and networks,” Strategic Management Journal, 19/5: 413-437.

Stark, David 2001. “Ambiguous assets for uncertain environments: Heterarchy in postsocialist firms.” In The 21st Century Firm, edited by Paul DiMaggio. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Staudenmayer, Nancy, Mary Tripsas, & Christopher L. Tucci. (2000) “Development Webs: A New Paradigm for Product Development,” In Rudi KF Bresser, Michael A. Hitt, Robert D. Nixon and Dieter Heuskel, eds., Winning strategies in a Deconstructing World, New York: Wiley & Sons.

Steers, Richard M., Yoo Keun Shin and Gerardo R. Ungson. 1989. Chaebol: Korea’s New Industrial Might, New York : Harper Collins.

Steinmueller, W. Edward, “The U.S. Software Industry: An Analysis and Interpretive History,” in Mowery, David C., ed. 1996. The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure. New York: Oxford University Press, 15-52.

Steinmueller, W. E. (2003). “The Role of Technical Standards in Coordinating the Division of Labour in Complex System Industries,” in A. Prencipe, A. Davies, and M. Hobday (eds.): The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stern, Scott and Fiona Murray. (2005). “Do Formal Intellectual Property Rights Hinder the Free Flow of Scientific Knowledge?” National Bureau of Economic Research, working paper 11465.

Stockdale, Brian, 2002, UK Innovation Survey, London: Department of Trade and Industry.

Stokes, Donald, 1997. Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Stuart, Toby E., 2000, “Interorganizational alliances and the performance of firms: A study of growth rates in a high-technology industry,” Strategic Management Journal, 21/8: 791-811.

Stuart, Toby E. and Joel M. Podolny, 1996, “Local search and the evolution of technological capabilities,” Strategic Management Journal, Summer Special Issue, 17 (Summer) 21-38.

Stuart, Toby, and Olav Sorenson. 2003. “The geography of opportunity: Spatial heterogeneity in founding rates and the performance of biotechnology firms.” Research Policy 32/2: 229-253.

Sturgeon, Timothy J. (2002). “Modular production networks. A new American model of industrial organization.” Industrial and Corporate Change, 11/3: 451-496.

Sweeney, Daniel (2004). “Emerging Markets for Class D Power Amplification,” Forward Concepts Report No: 4030, URL:

Szulanski, Gabriel, 1996, “Exploring Internal Stickiness: Impediments to the Transfer of Best Practice within the Firm,” Strategic Management Journal, 17 (Winter): 27-43.

Taft, Darryl K., “Sun Mulls Joining Java Eclipse Effort,” eWeek, September 1, 2003, URL:,1759,1236123,00.asp

Tansey, Richard, Neal, Mark, Carroll, Ray. 2005. “‘Get Rich, or Die Trying’: Lessons from Rambus’ High-Risk Predatory Litigation in the Semiconductor Industry,” Industry and Innovation, 12/1: 93-115.

Taylor, David and Terhune, Alyse D., 2001, Doing E-business: strategies for thriving in an electronic market place, New York: Wiley.

Teece, David (1986) “Profiting from technological innovation: implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy.” Research Policy, 15/6, 285-305.

Teece, David J., 1989. “Interorganizational requirements of the innovation process.” Managerial and Decision Economics 10/1: 35-42.

Teece, David J. (1996). “Firm Organization, Industrial Structure, and Technological Innovation.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 31/2: 193-224.

Teece, David J, Pisano, Gary and Shuen, Amy. 1997. “Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management,” Strategic Management Journal, 18/7: 509-533.

Teece, David J, Rumelt, Richard, Dosi, Giovanni, and Winter, Sidney (1994). “Understanding Corporate Coherence: Theory and Evidence.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 23/1: 1-30.

Teece, David J., 2000. Managing Intellectual Capital. New York: Oxford University Press.

Teece, David J., and Edward F. Sherry (2003). “Standards setting and antitrust.” Minnesota Law Review 87/6: 1913-1994.

Tennenhouse, David. (2003) “Innovation breeds success at Intel.” IEE Engineering Management, 13/6: 44-47.

Testa, Bridget Mintz (2005) “Zander’s Balancing Act.” Electronic Business, August, pp. 31-38.

Thurbsy, Jerry G., Richard Jensen, and Marie C. Thursby. (2001). “Objectives, characteristics, and outcomes of university licensing: A survey of major U.S. universities.” Journal of Technology Transfer, 26/1-2: 59-72.

Tidd, Joe and Martin J. Trewhella. (1997). “Organizational and technological antecedents for knowledge acquisition and learning.” R&D Management, 27/4, 359-375.

Tidd, Joe, Bessant, John and Pavitt, Keith (2005). Managing Innovation. Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change. (3rd edition). New York: Wiley.

Todd, Brett. (2004) “The whys of modding.” Computer Games, No. 163, June, 38-40.

Toivanen, Otto (2004). “Choosing Standards.” Helsinki Center of Economic Research, discussion paper 28.

Trajtenberg, Manuel. (1990). “A penny for your quotes: patent citations and the value of innovations.” RAND Journal of Economics, 21/1: 172-187.

Trajtenberg, Manuel, Rebecca Henderson, and Adam Jaffe. (1997). “University versus corporate patents: A window on the basicness of invention.” Economic Innovation and New Technology, 5/1: 19-50.

Traxler, Greg and Jos� Falck-Zepeda, 1999, “The distribution of benefits from the introduction of transgenic cotton varieties,” Agbioforum, 2/2: 94-98.

Tsai, Wenpin and Sumantra Ghoshal,. 1998. “Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks,” Academy of Management Journal, 41/4: 464-476.

Tulloch, James, “Clear as Mud,” Mobile Communications International, December 2002.

Tushman, Michael L. and Anderson, Philip (1986). “Technological discontinuities and organizational environments.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 31/3: 439-465.

Tushman, Michael L. and Charles A. O’Reilly III. (1996) “Ambidextrous organizations: Managing evolutionary and revolutionary change.” California Management Review, 38/4: 8-23.

Tushman, Michael L., and O’Reilly III., Charles A. (1997). Winning through innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

U.C. Regents. 1999. “The BSD License,”

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 2002. “Patenting by Organizations, 2001.” Report.

Utterback James M. 1994 Mastering the dynamics of innovation: how companies can seize opportunities in the face of technological change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Uzzi, Brian. 1994, “The Dynamics of Organizational Networks: Structural Embeddedness and Economic Behavior,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, The State University of New York at Stony Brook.

Uzzi, Brian. 1996. “The sources and consequences of embededdness for the economic performance of organizations: The network effect.” American Sociological Review 61/4: 674-698.

Uzzi, Brian. 1997. “Social Structure and Competition in Interfirm Networks: The Paradox of Embeddedness,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 42/1: 35-67.

Uzzi, Brian and James Gillespie, (1999a) “Corporate social capital and the cost of financial capital: an embeddedness approach.” In Roger Leenders & Shaul Gabbay (Eds.), Corporate social capital and liability, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 446-459.

Uzzi, Brian and James J. Gillespie. (1999b) “Inter-firm Ties and the Organization of the Firm’s Capital Structure in the Middle Financial Market.” in David Knoke and Steven Andrews, eds., Research in the Sociology of Organizations 16, Stamford, CT: JAI Press, pp. 107-26

Väisänen, Kaarlo, Maula, Markku V. J., and Salmenkaita, Jukka-Pekka (2003). “Systemic Innovation Process: Organizational Boundaries and Process Elements.” Paper presented at the 23rd Annual International Conference of the Strategic Management Society, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Välimäki, Mikko (2003) “Dual Licensing in Open Source Software Industry,” Systemes d’Information et Management, 8/1: 63-75, URL:

Vanhaverbeke, Wim and Peeters, Nico (2005), “Embracing Innovation as Strategy: Corporate Venturing, Competence Building and Corporate Strategy Making,” Creativity and Innovation Management, 14/3: 246-257.

Verspagen, Bart and Wilfred Schoenmakers (2004). “The spatial dimension of patenting by multinational firms in Europe.” Journal of Economic Geography 4/1: 23-42.

von Burg, Urs, 2001. The triumph of Ethernet: technological communities and the battle for the LAN standard, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press

von Hippel, Eric (1988) The Sources of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.

von Hippel, Eric (2005). Democratizing Innovation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

von Hippel, Eric, and von Krogh, Georg (2003). “Open source software and the ‘private-collective’ innovation model: Issues for organization science.” Organization Science, 14/2: 209-223.

Walsh, John P., Ashish Arora, and Wesley M. Cohen. (2003). “Effects of research tool patents and licensing on biomedical innovation,” In Wesley M. Cohen and Stephen A. Merrill, eds., Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 285-340.

Wasserman, Stanley and Katherine Faust, 1994, Social network analysis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weber, Alfred 1928. Theory of The Location of Industries. Translated by Carl J. Friedrich: University of Chicago Press.

Weick, Karl E. (1995). Sensemaking in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Weiss, Martin and Marvin A. Sirbu (1990). “Technological Choice in Voluntary Standards Committees: An Empirical Analysis.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology 1/1: 111-134.

Wernerfelt, Birger, 1984, “A resource-based view of the firm,” Strategic Management Journal, 5/2: 171-180.

West, Joel, (1995) “Software Rights and Japan’s Shift to an Information Society.” Asian Survey 35/12: 1118-1139

West, Joel (2000). “Institutional Constraints in the Initial Deployment of Cellular Telephone Service on Three Continents,” in Kai Jakobs, ed., Information Technology Standards and Standardization: A Global Perspective, Philadelphia: Idea Group, pp. 198-221.

Idea Group, pp. 198-221.

West, Joel, (2002) “Qualcomm 2000: CDMA Technologies.” European Case Clearinghouse, Case 302-069-1.

West, Joel (2003) “How open is open enough? Melding proprietary and open source platform strategies.” Research Policy, 32/7: 1259-1285.

West, Joel (2005) “The fall of a Silicon Valley icon: Was Apple really Betamax redux?” in Richard A. Bettis., ed., Strategy in Transition, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 274-301.

West, Joel (2006) “The Economic Realities of Open Standards: Black, White and Many Shades of Gray.” In Shane Greenstein and Victor Stango, eds., Standards and Public Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

West, Joel, and Jason Dedrick. (2001). “Open Source Standardization: The Rise of Linux in the Network Era,” Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 14/2: 88-112.

West, Joel and Jason Dedrick. (2005) “The Effect of Computerization Movements Upon Organizational Adoption of Open Source,” Social Informatics Workshop: Extending the Contributions of Professor Rob Kling to the Analysis of Computerization Movements, Irvine, Calif., March 11, 2005. URL:

West, Joel and Vladislav Fomin (2001) “National Innovation Systems in the Mobile Telephone Industry, 1946-2000.” Academy of Management Conference, Washington, DC.

West, Joel and John L. Graham. (2004). “A Linguistic-Based Measure of Cultural Distance and its Relationship to Managerial Values,” Management International Review, 44/3: 239-260.

West, Joel, and O’Mahony, Siobhán. (2005) “Contrasting Community Building in Sponsored and Community Founded Open Source Projects.” Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawai‘i International Conference on System Sciences, Waikoloa, Hawaii, 196c.

West, Joel and Justin Tan (2002) “Qualcomm in China (B),” Asian Case Research Journal, 6/2: 101-128.

Williams, Martyn, 2005. “Sony loses Playstation patent case, must pay $91 million.” PC World, March.

Williamson, Oliver E. 1975. Markets and Hierarchies, Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization. New York: Free Press.

Williamson, Oliver E. (1983). Credible Commitments: Using Hostages to Support Exchange. American Economic Review, 73/4: 519-540.

Williamson, Oliver, (1985), The economic institutions of capitalism: Firms, markets, relational contracting, Free Press, New York.

Williamson, Oliver E. (1999). “Strategy Research: Governance and Competence Perspectives.” Strategic Management Journal, 20/12: 1087-1108.

Yin, Robert K., 1988. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Yin, Robert K., (1994). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, Calif.:: Sage Publications.

Yoffie, David B. and Cusumano, Michael A. (1999) “Judo strategy: The competitive dynamic of internet time,” Harvard Business Review, 77(1), 71-81.

Young, Robert, and Rohm, Wendy Goldman (1999). Under the radar: how Red Hat changed the software business &emdash; and took Microsoft by surprise. Scottsdale, Ariz.: Coriolis Group.

Zaheer, Akbar, McEvily, Bill and Perrone, Vincenzo (1998) “Does Trust Matter? Exploring the Effects of Interorganizational and Interpersonal Trust on Performance.” Organization Science, 9/2: 141-159.

Zajac, Edward and Cyrus Olsen, 1993, “From transaction cost to transactional value analysis: implications for the study of interorganizational strategies,” Journal of Management Studies, 30/1: 131-145.

Zucker, Lynne G, Michael R. Darby, 1997. “Present at the biotechnological revolution: transformation of technological identity for a large Incumbent Pharmaceutical Firm,” Research Policy 26/4: 429-446.

Zucker, Lynne G, Michael R. Darby and Marilynn B. Brewer. (1998). “Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises.” American Economic Review, 88/1: 290-306.

Zucker, Lynee G., Michael R. Darby, and Jeff S. Armstrong. (2002). “Commercializing Knowledge: University Science, Knowledge Capture, and Firm Performance in Biotechnology.” Management Science, 48/1: 138-152.